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by Dr. John Thomas
That Gomer founded the Gomari, whom the Greeks, at that time, called Galatæ -- tou;" nu`n uJf?
ÎEllhnwn Galavta" calouvmenou"; -- and that Magogue founded the Magogæ, whom the Greeks then called Scythæ, Scuvqai".
It only, therefore, remains for us to ascertain which were the nations that the Greeks, in the time of Josephus, called Scythæ, and which they then called Galat; and to observe whether the geographical affinities of these nations are such as answer to those which are plainly required by the prophecy for Magogue and Gomer.
Herodotus, the most ancient Greek writer accessible, acquaints us "that the name Scythae was a name given by the Greeks to an ancient and widely extended people of Europe, who had spread themselves from the river Tanais, or Don, westward along the banks of the Ister, or Danube".
"The Greeks," observes Major Rennel, "appear to have first used the term Scythia, in its application to their neighbouts, the Scythians of the Euxine, who were also called Getei;, or Gothi; and were those who afterwards subdued the Roman empire: and from which original stock the present race of people in Europe seem to be descended".
And again, "the Scythians of Herodotus appear to have extended themselves in length from Hungary, Transylvania, and Wallachia, on the westward, to the river Don on the eastward".
Thus the testimony of Herodotus and Josephus is in perfect agreement concerning the progress of Magogue and Gomer.
In these same regions the Scythae continued many ages after Herodotus, and even long after the time of Josephus; for Dion Cassius, who lived 150 years after Josephus, and above 200 after Christ, relates, that Pompey, in his return into Europe from Asia, "determined to pass to the Ister, or Danube, through the Scythae; and so to enter Italy".
These were the original Scythae.
But Herodotus states further, that a portion of the same people, in an after age, turned back upon the European seats of their lathers, and established themselves in Asia; and from these sprung the Asiatic Scythae, who, in process of time, almost engrossed the name to themselves.
Since the name of Scythae, ie., Magogue is to be considered not by itself, but in geographical connection with Galatae, or Gomer, we have only to inquire, whether any geographical affinity is really ascribed by the Greeks to the Scythae and Galat; and to ascertain to what regions of the earth those names, so associated were applied.
If we can discover these two points, we ought thereby to have discovered specifically the Magogue of the prophecy, which is to be associated with the region, or people of Gomer.
Diodorus Siculus, who lived about a century before Josephus, traces them much further into Europe than the Danube; even to the shores of the Baltic, and to the very confines of the Galatae of the Greeks.
In speaking of the amber-found upon the shores of that sea, he there places the region expressly denominated, "Scythia above, or north of, Galatia".
In which description we at length find the Scythæ, or Magogue, in the immediate neighbourhood of the Galatæ of the Greeks, or Gomer.
Galatia, Galativa, is the common and familiar name used by all the earlier Greek historians for Gaul, the Gailia of the Latins; and Galatae, Galavtai, is the common Greek name for Gauls, or the Galli of the Latins.
Thus, "all the Galatae" (or Gauls), says Strabo, "were called Celtae by the Greeks"; and the converse is equally true: "the Celtae were called Galatae by the Greeks, and Galli by the Latins".
To inquire, Who were "the Galatae of the Greeks"?
is, therefore, the same as to inquire, Who were the Galli of the Romans?
A colony of these Galatae, or Galli, indeed, in the third century before Christ, emigrated from Gaul and established themselves in Asia Minor; where they were ever after called by their Greek name Galatians.
Diodorus' "Scythia above Gaul extending towards the Baltic," accurately describes that large tract of Europe above the Rhine, or northern boundary of Gaul, through which flow the rivers Elbe, Ems, and Weser.
Here, and in the countries immediately adjoining, were the Scythæ bordering upon the Galatae on the north; that is to say, a considerable part of Magogue, geographicaly associated with Gomer.
Diodorus elsewhere describes the northeln part of Galatia, or Gaul, as confining upon Scythia.