Eureka - An Exposition of the Apocalypse - John Thomas
Chapter 11 9.
Second Section of the Seventh Seal or First Two Woe-Trumpets Act I -- Fifth Trumpet; or, First Woe Summary A star falls out of the heaven into the earth, to whom is given the key of the pit of the abyss, which he opens; and from its furnace a smoke issues that darkens the sun and air. Out of the smoke locusts go forth into the earth with scorpion-power to torment "those men who have not the seal of the Deity upon their foreheads," during five months, and to injure them other five. Their king is styled The Angel of the Abyss; and named in Hebrew, Abaddon; in Greek, Apollyon. TIME OF EVENTS From a.d. 632 to a.d. 932=300 years Arena The territory of the Dragon upon which the imperial "sun" shone before being darkened by the smoke. See Tabular Analysis Vol. 2 p. 110. Translation Apoc. 9:1-12 1. And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star which had fallen out of the heaven into the earth, and there was given to him the key of the pit of the abyss. 2. And he opened the pit of the abyss: and smoke ascended out of the pit as it were smoke of a great furnace; and the sun was darkened, and the air from the smoke of the pit. 3. And out of the smoke came forth locusts into the earth, and there was given to them power as the scorpions of the earth have power. 4. And it was commanded them that they should not injure the grass of the earth, nor any green thing, nor any tree, except the men only who have not the seal of the Deity upon their foreheads. 5. And it was given to them that they should not kill them, but that they should torment them five months: and their torment was as the torment of a scorpion when it striketh a man. 6. And in those days the men shall seek the death, and shall not find it: and they shall earnestly desire to die, and the death shall flee from them. 7. And the resemblances of the locusts were like to horses which had been prepared for war; and upon their heads as it were chaplets like to gold, and their faces as faces of men. 8. And they had hair as the tresses of women; and their teeth were as of lions. 9. And they had breasts as it were breasts of iron: and the sound of their wings as the sound of many chariots of horses rushing into battle. 10. And they have tails like to scorpions, and stings were in their tails; and their power to injure the men was five months. 11. And they have over them a king, the Angel of the Abyss the name for him in Hebrew is Abaddon; and in the Greek, he hath the name Apollyon. 12. The first woe hath passed away; behold there come yet two woes after these things. I. Symbols Explained On the sounding of the fifth angel, John saw "a star." I need not repeat here what has already been said about stars. The reader is referred to my explanation of the symbols of the third trumpet, the subject of which is the "great star Apsinthos." The star of the fifth trumpet may also be styled a falling star; or rather, when John saw it in vision, a fallen star. Its place was in the heaven, or it could not have proceeded "out of the heaven." It was not a fixed star of the heaven, transmitting through "the air" in "the night" of the Greek catholic world, the reflected light of the Byzantine "sun." Had it been a fixed star of the eastern Roman firmament, its falling would not have been to receive power, but the deprivation of everything constituting the glory of a star. John may not have seen it in the act of falling into the earth. The falling had been completed when he first saw it. This is intimated by the perfect participle peptokota, which signifies "having fallen." The falling out of the heaven is no part of the vision's scenery. It had fallen, or descended, into the earth, as the Apsinthian Star had fallen, or descended into the rivers and fountains of water. It did not forsake the heaven as its place, because it had fallen into the earth; but being a power, a power of the heaven peculiar to itself, it retained its position there, but fell with destructive effect upon the people represented by "the earth." By "the earth" in this vision is meant "the dwellers upon the earth;" or the grass, green things, and trees, which symbolized the unsealed. The eagle-angel community, constituted of the servants of the Deity sealed in their foreheads, was not to be tormented by this woe. The sealed servants of the Deity -- the enlightened believers who have obeyed the truth -- are nowhere in the apocalypse styled "the earth". They are "a Holy Nation." But "the earth" apocalyptic is the very reverse. "The earth" is an unholy generation that "wonders after the beast;" and that "worships the Dragon, and worships the beast;" and represents the "all kindreds, and tongues, and nations" subject to the Dragon and Beast forms of government (Apoc. 13:3, 4, 7). "The earth," in the prophecy of the fifth and sixth trumpets, is symbolical of the secular and ecclesiastical orders and people of the Catholic Apostasy; which, by the fifth trumpet were to be "tormented" and "injured;" and by the sixth, to be "killed," or deprived of all power, authority and rule, over the Eastern Third of the fourth beast dominion (ch. 9:15, 18). "The earth" would therefore represent the territory upon which these catholic idolators dwelt. The sealed servants of the Deity dwelt there likewise, only in "the Two Wings" of it, where they were "nourished;" and though the locusts swarmed over "the earth," they were especially forbidden to torment and injure them, in the command to injure only the unsealed -- ver. 4. Hence, then, when John saw the Fallen Star "in the earth," he saw it where it did not naturally belong. It fell "out of the heaven into the earth;" and being a star of destruction, or a destroying power, it would make its way "into the earth" by an overwhelming invasive force. In other words, "the earth" was fallen upon, or invaded, by the star-power. 1. The Pit of the Abyss But, before the star was seen by John "in the earth," it had acquired possession of "the Key of the Pit of the Abyss" -- he kleis tou phreatos tes abussou. The pit of the abyss is the geographical locality of the "smoke," out of which the locusts issued to invade "the earth." When the pit was opened smoke arose out of it. The pit -- to phrear -- is contiguous to "the earth;" they abutt the one upon the other. It is an immense depression in the surface of the globe, confining upon Palestine, then a province of the Eastern Third, called the Greek or Byzantine empire. It is the pit or reservoir, or basin in which lies the abussos, abyss, or Dead Sea. It is introduced here symbolically to represent the region styled Arabia, whose tribes inhabited it, and poured out of it "into the earth." The Arabic region is well represented as "the pit;" and locality of "a great furnace;" for the district of the Dead Sea, and of the whole valley of the Jordan northward to the Lake of Tiberias, is quite a phenomenon in physical geography, being below the level of the ocean. No other example of similar depression, or pit, is known. The Lake of Tiberias is 328 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; and from thence the river-valley declines to the Dead Sea, the surface of which is very nearly 1,400 feet below the same level. Owing to the great depth of this "pit," or depression of the surface, together with the heights which wall in the valley, the heat powerfully accumulates, or becomes as it were "a great furnace," by the concentration and reflection of the solar rays, while the bordering highlands prevent the admission of external breezes to relieve the temperature. The climate is therefore tropical. Travellers, on descending into this low and deep country, feel as if they had entered another zone. They confirm the accuracy of Josephus, who reports that winter in the plain of Jericho resembled spring, and that the inhabitants wore linen garments at the time when the people in other parts of Judea were shivering in the midst of snow. The balsam-tree, a tropical plant, which yields the medicinal gum, now called the balsam of Mecca, and is now limited to Arabia, once flourished in groves near Jericho, and furnished the renowned balm of Gilead. Apart from the margin of the Jordan, the surface of "the pit" has the aspect of a parched desert through the months of summer. The Dead Sea Depression The Jordan Valley from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea is a phenomenon in physical geography, being below the level of the ocean. A small plane can fly above the Dead Sea and yet be below normal sea level! The depression extends further south via the Arabah through Arabia proper to the Gulf of Aqaba. This area saw the uprise of the Saracen power, the locusts of Revelation 9. Such are the natural conditions of this "pit of the abyss," or sea, which constitute it a fit and proper emblem of the political situation of affairs within its limits before its locusts issued forth upon the earth. The whole pit was in the condition of a furnace. In Deut. 4:20, Egypt is styled "an iron furnace" to Israel; and in Isa. 31:8, 9, Zion and Jerusalem are styled the place of the fire and the furnace, whence shall issue the destruction that is to fall upon the Assyrian. So this Arabian Pit was the place of a fire burning as a furnace, which, when it should be "opened," would pour forth a woeful tormenting power upon the unsealed inhabitants of the earth. The inhabitants of this pit of the sea, while they were shut up therein, would be in a state of war and distraction; for such is the idea conveyed by a burning furnace, which melts down the crude matters cast into it. A great furnace is never a symbol of peace and prosperity; but always of the contrary. John saw the pit of the abyss in this fiery, or embattled, condition before it was opened; but he has revealed to us no details. He has simply informed us, that a power was developed that was able to open the pit of the abyss; and to let out the contents thereof, which he styles "smoke" and "locusts". This information he conveys in the words, "and to him (the Star) was given the Key of the Pit of the Abyss; and he opened the pit of the abyss; and smoke ascended out of the pit -- and out of the smoke came forth locusts into the earth." 2. The Key of the Pit A key is symbolical of governmental power and authority. The laying of the key of the house of David upon the shoulder of Eliakim, was representative of the bestowal of regal power upon One, who should be for a glorious throne to his father's house, and have the sole power of opening and shutting (Isa. 22:22). With the Mohammedans, it is also symbolical of administrative power. "The Koran," says M. Peyron, "continually speaks of the Key of God, which opened to them the gates of the world and of religion. So in the Koran: "Did not God give to His legate the power of heaven which is above, and fire (the furnace-pit) which is beneath? With the Key, did he not give him the title and power of a porter, that he may open to those (the locusts) whom he may have chosen?" The parentheses in this quotation are mine. The following form of renunciation of Mohammedanism, enjoined on a convert to the catholic superstition, thus alludes to Mohammed's key of heaven: "I anathematize the spurious teaching and promising of Mohammed among the Saracens; who says, that he is become the Key holder of Paradise." The key was also an armorial bearing of the Mohammedans in Spain. When they crossed from Africa to Spain, it was on their standard; and was afterwards sculptured on the archway of the Alhambra, an engraving of which is given in Mr. Elliott's work. In the apocalypse, there are two keys spoken of in connection with "the abyss;" this in ch. 9; and another in ch. 20:1. They are, however, not the same. The former is the key of the pit of the abyss; and the latter, the key of the abyss itself. The key of the pit was given to the Star of the pit, or the Star who kindled the furnace of the pit; while the key of the abyss is brought out of the heaven by the angel thence descending. He descends with power to enlighten the earth with his glory, and to shut down the Dragon "into the abyss," out of which, according to Daniel, he came up -- salkan min yammah -- ch. 7:3. 3. The Abyss This leads me to remark, that in these places of the apocalypse, abussos is improperly rendered "bottomless pit." In Isa. 44:27, what in the Septuagint is abssos, or abyss, is in the Hebrew tz'lah "deep;" and is explained in Jer. 50:38 and 51:36, of Babylon's power, which is also likened to a dragon therein. Hence, in Daniel's time, the eagle-winged lion of Babylon was the dragon of the great sea, or abyss, so long as its dominion extended to the Mediterranean; but when it lost that jurisdiction, then its "sea," or abyss, was said to be "dried up." Abyss is frequently used in the Greek version as synonymous with sea. The following passages show this sense of the word abussos. In Job 38:30 -- "the face of the abyss is frozen;" 41:31, "he maketh the abyss to boil like a pot; he maketh the sea like a pot of ointment." In Isa. 63:13, where is he "that led them through the abyss" by the hand of Moses? It is manifest that there is nothing bottomless in the abyss as used in these texts. In Rom. 10:7, abyss is used by Paul in asking, "Who shall descend into the abyss?" in the C.V. deep: and he tells us what sense he attaches to the word in letting us know the purpose of the descent -- "that is," says he, "to bring up Christ again from among dead ones, ek nekron." This is an abyss which is "never full;" still bottom can be reached when "there shall be no more death, and the grave shall be destroyed. In this use of the word, abyss does not signify "the invisible receptacle of departed spirits," but the common receptacle of dead bodies; or more stricly speaking, the aggregate of dead bodies themselves. These are a sea of death, which when living were "a troubled sea, whose waters cast up mire and dirt" -- Isa. 57:20. The apocalyptic abyss is this troubled sea of nations, inhabiting the countries circumjacent to the Great Sea; and out of which Daniel's four beasts arose. Arabia is physically and politically "the pit" of this "abyss" -- physically, because it is a sandy sea-bottom; and politically, because its tribes may be regarded as the lowest, or worst of the peoples of the east. The key of the abyss, that is brought down from heaven by the binding angel, is power to suppress the Dragon-Government, and to destroy the Beast-Polity of the abyss, or sea -- Apoc. 13:1: and to maintain its suppression for a thousand years. The abolition of the Dragon-Government will be the reduction of all its officials in church and state to the common level of mankind; and the depriving them of all power to recover the position lost during that long period. Thus, they will be comingled with the waters of the great national abyss -- they will have been "cast into the abyss, and shut up, and sealed" with such a mark of divine reprobation, that they will be able to deceive the nations by their hypocritical pretensions, and blasphemous projects, no more for ages. What a different key is this to the key of the pit! This key is power given to one to open the pit to let out clouds of tormentors and destroyers. Their mission is not to deliver the nations from official and clerical deceivers; but to torment and injure these blind leaders, and those who are blindly led by them. These all "have not the seal of the Deity in their foreheads;" and were therefore obnoxious to the stinging calamities inflicted by the bold, licentious, and ferocious swarms emergent from the smoke-clouds of the flaming pit. 4. The Smoke of the Pit Until the power of the Prophet-King, or Star, was matured in "the pit of the abyss," the pit was shut; so that neither "smoke" nor "locusts" could issue forth upon "the earth" to torment and destroy the unsealed. The furnace was roaring with flaming blast in the pit, from which nothing could come forth until the acquisition of undisputed authority and power by the star. This he at length acquired; for it is testified, that "he opened the pit of the abyss." He had become a powerful star, ruling over the kingdom of the pit, styled historically, the kingdom of Arabia; the armies of which no longer in a state of civil war, but united under the yellow banner of the star, were prepared to rush through the opened portals of the pit, and to invade the world at large. And invade it they did; for when the pit was opened, smoke poured out in columns vast enough to darken the sun and the air. "Smoke" when considered as proceeding from fire, signifies punishment and war. Thus Sodom and Gomorrah, and all the cities of the plain, were situated in the pit of the abyss; and when they were destroyed, "the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace." Here, the smoke became representative of their judgment. It is the adjunct of anger, as in Deut. 29:20, "The anger of Yahweh shall smoke against that man;" and in Psa. 74:1, "O God, why doth thine anger smoke against the sheep of thy pasture?" Smoke arising out of a pit, and darkening the sun and air, is symbolical of divine anger and wrath against the things represented by "the sun and air." In ch. 9:18, the men obnoxious to the sixth trumpet woe, are said to be "killed by the fire, by the smoke, and by the brimstone." In ch. 14:11, smoke is associated with torment as "the smoke of their torment ascendeth to the aions of the aions; and they have no rest day nor night;" and in ch. 15:8, "the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of the Deity and from his power;" that is the wrath contained in the seven vials, and which in its seventh vial consummation comes for the destruction of the destroyers of the earth -- ch. 11:18. 5. The Sun And Air Darkened By The Smoke The sun is here the symbol of the same imperial majesty as that which was darkened in its third by the judgments of the fourth trumpet. The darkened third had recovered its light in the process of re-annexing Italy and Africa to the Byzantine, Greek, or Constantinopolitan, empire in the reign of Justinian. The "deadly wound" the Sixth Head had received, had been "healed;" and its affairs restored to order in Italy by the Pragmatic Sanction, a.d. 554. The sun now shining forth, "the third of the day and of the night," then recovered their brightness. The sun, therefore, now shone upon Italy, Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and the islands of the sea. "The rest of the men not killed by" the fifth and sixth trumpet plagues, were found in Spain, Gaul, Britain, Germany, &c. When the sun was darkened by the smoke of the pit, its light, or power, was quenched in the countries of "the earth" where the locusts of the smoke established themselves. Not only was the sun darkened, but "the air" likewise. In the darkening of the Roman luminaries by the fourth trumpet "the air" remained unaffected. In symbolic language, the air denotes the civil and ecclesiastical constitution of the world. This constitution was not changed when the Seventh Head superseded the Sixth in Rome. It still continued catholic. The Gothic kingdom of Italy was a catholic monarchy administered by Arian catholic kings, who distributed civil and ecclesiastical offices both to Arian and Trinitarian members of the apostasy. But when the smoke of the pit darkened "the air" all this was changed where its locusts tormented the unsealed. The aerial constitution became Arabian. Place and power, in the conquered countries, were only for the locusts of the smoke; so that if a catholic idolator would retain office, he must become a convert to the new superstition, which so darkened the air politically, that the rays of the spirituals of wickedness in the Byzantine heaven, could not pass through it for the illumination of their coreligionists in scorpion-like torment. In Apoc. 16:17, "the air" is also the recipient of judgment. But in this instance, on a much larger scale. The course of the whole world will be changed; so that every political island and mountain will be abolished. The civil and ecclesiastical constitutions of all the states and kingdoms will be superseded by "the law that goes forth from Zion," which will become "the air" in which clouds of saints will meet the Lord, and so be ever with him (1 Thess. 4:17). When the kingdoms of this world become the kingdoms of Yahweh and his Anointed, "the wise" will be the embodiment of "the air" or firmament; for "they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament" (Dan. 12:3). No smoke of the pit, or wrath of vials, will ever darken, or abolish them. They will always be bright and clear, and give transmission to the healing rays of the Sun of Righteousness, as his kings and priests over the subject nations of the earth. 6. "Out of the Smoke Came Forth Locusts Into The Earth" "Locusts," says Daubuz, "begin to appear in spring, about a month after the equinox, and are only seen at most during five months. They are wont to arise in such vast companies, that they form a kind of cloud which eclipses the sun and darkens the sky; and make so great a noise with their wings as that, according to some, the sound thereof may be heard at six miles distant. Wherever they fall they make a most terrible havoc of all the fruits of the earth; and therefore the people, when they see them flying, are in the greatest consternation. Pliny says, "That they were looked upon as a plague proceeding from the wrath of the gods." The head of the locust resembles that of the horse; and therefore the Italians, who are often troubled with them, call them cavalette, as it were little horses. "The Arabians, who know them well, say that the locusts have the thigh of a camel, the legs of an ostrich, the wings of an eagle, the breast of a lion, their tails are like a viper's, and the appearance of horns adorns their heads and countenance." As to the teeth of the locusts, Pliny observes that "nothing can resist them." For the reasons above given, locusts are the symbol of an army of enemies coming in great multitudes, with great speed and swiftness to make an excursion in order to plunder and destroy. "It is further to be observed, that locusts are generated in the pits of the earth, out of which the new progeny arises in the spring." Volney observes, that "the inhabitants of Syria have remarked that locusts come constantly from the desert of Arabia." Indeed, etymologically, an Arab and a locust are almost the same in radicals, and in pronunciation -- arbeh, signifying a locust; and arbi, an Arab. In Judg. 6:5, in the original, the locust is used to designate the number and character of invading Arab hosts -- "they (the Midianite Arabs and children of the east) came as locusts for multitude." In a work styled Mohammedanism Unveiled, the writer says: "In the Bedoween Romance of Antar, the locust is introduced as the national emblem of the Ishmaelites." He adds: "It is a remarkable coincidence with these illustrative facts, that Mohammedan tradition speaks of locusts having dropped into the hands of Mohammed, bearing on their wings their inscription, 'We are the army of the Great God'." The Locusts (Revelation 9) The devastation caused by a plague of locusts is depicted by these illustrations. The tree above was quickly denuded of all foliage in a very short time. The photo below illustrates the extent of locust swaarms during a plague. The Saracen Locusts A drawing illustrating the symbolism of the locusts. A bad plague will darken the sun like smoke (Rev. 9:2). The appearance of locusts is so like that of horses that Italians call them cavelette -- cavalry (see Rev. 9:7) It is evident from the entomology of the insect, that the apocalyptic locusts were not literally such. The locusts of the first woe had faces of men, and tresses as those of women, and a king over them. These and other characteristics show that they were armies of men, whose main force consisted of cavalry, invincible, licentious, and tormenting; analogous in their destructive operations to clouds of locusts. They were fitly styled locusts as coming from Arabia, the native country of the locust, whose name, with the change of a single letter as arabah for arbeh, signifies a desert -- the Arab desert between the Dead and Red Seas. As of the locust so of the "scorpion," whose native locality was considered by the Jews to be the Arabian desert. And they had good reason for this; for they were reminded by Moses on emerging from it, that it was "a great and terrible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents and scorpions." "And who know not," says Elliott, "if facts so notorious be worth mentioning, that it is Arabia, still Arabia, that is regarded by naturalists as the original country of the horse; and its wildernesses are the haunts also of the lion. The entomology of the hieroglyphic is all Arabian." 7. "Power Was Given To the Locusts As The Scorpions Of The Earth Have Power." The bite or sting of the scorpion is generally fatal. Hence, the power of the locusts was a fatal power. They had scorpion-like tails, and in these tails was some of their power for destruction. But scorpion-like tails and stings were only symbolical of something analogous thereto. In Gibbon, I find the following solution of the mystery. "A Roman knight," says he, "who despised the swords and lances of the Saracens, relates his own fears at the sight and sound of the mischievous engines that discharged a torrent of the Saracen fire. 'It came flying through the air,' says Joinville, 'like a winged, long-tailed dragon, about the thickness of a hogshead, with the report of thunder and the velocity of lightning; and the darkness of the night was dispelled by the deadly illumination. The use of the Saracen fire, or, as it was afterwards called, the Greek fire, was continued to the middle of the 14th century, when the scientific or casual compound of nitre, sulphur, and charcoal, effected a new revolution in the art of war and the history of mankind." An Arab writer in the Escurial collection, about the year 1249, thus speaks of what Joinville styles "a winged, long-tailed dragon," used by the Saracens: "The scorpions," says he, "surrounded and ignited by nitrated powder, glide along like serpents, with a humming noise, and, when exploded, they blaze brightly and burn. Now, to behold the matter expelled was as a cloud extended through the air, which gave forth a dreadful crash like thunder vomiting fire on every side, and breaking down, burning, and reducing all things to ashes." 8. Chaplets Like to Gold The use of this tormenting Saracen fire constituted the resemblance of the Arabs to scorpion-tailed locusts. Besides this, they had other remarkable "resemblances" in their equipment for war. They had, as it were, "chaplets like to gold" -- hos stephanoi. This was only an homoioma -- resemblance -- not literal golden circlets. They would be yellow so as to bear a resemblance to gold. They had a yellow headgear. Ezekiel, in ch. 23:42, describes the head-dress of the Sabean and Keturite Arabs by atereth, rendered in Greek by stephanon, as "Sabeans from the wilderness, who put beautiful stephans or wreaths upon their heads" -- that is, turbans. It was a usual saying among them that Allah had bestowed four peculiar things upon the Arabs; and that one of them was, that their turbans should be to them instead of diadems. "Make, a point," said their prophet, "of wearing turbans, because it is the way of angels." 9. Faces As The Faces Of Men Another resemblance of the locusts was that "they had faces as faces of men." This distinguished them from the Goths and other kindred barbarian hordes; the faces of these being noticed by Jerome, who was contemporary with their earliest invasions, as having faces shaven and smooth, like women's faces. The beard was not always worn by the Romans. From Nero to Hadrian, the imperatorial custom was to have the beard shaven; from Hadrian to Constantine, unshaven; afterwards (with the exception of Julian), down to Phocas, shaven. But the locusts did not shave. They wore beards, and so vindicated their relationship to the bearded race, and their antagonism to all shaven crowns. Pliny, who was contemporary with John, speaks of the Arabs as wearing the turban, having the hair long and uncut, with the moustache on the upper lip, or the beard, that "venerable sign of manhood," as Gibbon, in Arab phraseology, calls it. In the age immediately preceding the great Saracen irruption, in the poem, Antar, the Arabs are portrayed with moustache and beard, long hair flowing on the shoulder ("hair as the tresses of women," which the Greeks regarded as shameful), and the turban also. 10. "Their Teeth Were As Of Lions" This indicated their ferocity. Nothing could successfully resist them in their ravening upon the prey. The Star styled his first vizier, Ali, the Lion of God. "Who," says Mohammed, "will be my Vizier and Lieutenant?" "O prophet," replied Ali, "I am the man. Whoever rises against thee, I will dash out his teeth, tear out his eyes, break his legs, rip up his belly. O prophet, I will be thy Vizier." "These words," says Hallam, "are, as it were, a text upon which the commentary expands into the whole Saracenic history." The spirit of Ali was the spirit of the lion, and became the spirit of the hosts he led to battle, who were equally entitled with him to the appellation of the lions of God. 11. "And They Had Breasts As It Were Breasts of Iron" In this the thing covered is put for the covering. In the poem Antar, as quoted by Elliott, the steel or iron cuirasses of the Arab warriors are frequently noticed; as, "a warrior immersed in steel armour;" "15,000 men armed with cuirasses, and well accoutred for war;" they were "clothed in iron armor and brilliant cuirasses;" "out of the dust appeared horsemen clad in iron." In the Koran, among God's gifts to the Arabs, their coats of mail for defence are specially mentioned; as, "God hath given you coats of mail to defend you in your wars." The Saracen policy was the wearing of defensive armor. The breastplate of iron, as symbolized by their iron breasts, was a descriptive feature answering literally to the Arab warriors of the sixth and seventh centuries. 12. The Two Periods of Five Months each The locusts were to torment the men of the catholic apostasy in church and state "five months" -- ver. 5; they were also to "injure" them for "five months" -- ver. 10. This is, of course, symbolic time. The fitness of things requires that the time allotted for symbolic action should be expressed symbolically and analogically. The entomology of the hieroglyphic required that it should be five months, and not ten; because locusts are only seen at most five months, namely, part of April, May, June, July, and August, with part of September. Yet it would seem that they could not do all the tormenting and injuring they were appointed to do against "the shaven crowns" and their deluded votaries in one season of five months, but in two seasons. The decorum of the symbols, therefore, rejected the record of ten months, and required the time to be expressed symbolically twice by "five months." This period is 150 days, and upon the principle of a day for a year, which is the basis of the symbolic times of the apocalypse, represents 150 years. Hence, the locusts were to torment with scorpion torment "the men" of the apostasy until the end of 150 years; and they were to injure "the rest of the men" not included in the eastern or Byzantine third, which was politically "killed by the plagues" of the first and second woes, until another 150 years should have expired. So that the sounding of the fifth trumpet would continue to harass the men destitute of intelligence in the truth, for not less than 300 years. A period to be dated from the commencement of the tormentation or military operation of the locusts in the Roman earth. a.d. 632-33 13. "And They Had Over Them A King" "The locusts," says Solomon, "have no king, yet go they forth all of them by bands." As we must not set scripture against scripture, these opposite sayings concerning locusts must be interpreted so as to harmonize. The apocalyptic locusts who had a king are not literal locusts, as some ignorantly affirm who deny the symbolic character of the apocalypse. John records the truth of the locusts he saw in vision; and Solomon writes the truth concerning literal locusts. These have no king; but John's had, and he was apocalyptically named "the Angel of the Abyss;" not the angel of the Pit of the Abyss, but of the abyss at large. The locust king-power is styled angel, because it was a messenger of heaven against the unsealed -- a destroying angel-power; and, therefore, named Abaddon, and Apollyon, names which signify in English, Destroyer. The locust king-power was the destroyer of "the abyss" -- "the dwellers upon the earth," against whom the woe-plague was commissioned, and in the midst of whom it scattered destruction for three hundred years. In history, the succession of men who reigned over the locusts are styled Caliphs and Commanders of the Faithful. 14. Abaddon -- Apollyon But why are we informed that the destroying power is called "Abaddon in Hebrew, and Apollyon in Greek," and not told what it would be called in Latin, or any other tongue? The answer is, because it was commissioned primarily and chiefly against the countries to which the Hebrew and Greek belonged. We are not told what its name was in Latin, because it was not sent against Italy to "torment" the Italians. It was the Greek empire, which included Palestine and Syria, upon which the locusts were to fall with their most destructive energy. There is another instance where our attention is claimed to the name of a thing "in the Hebrew," and for the same reason. In ch. 16:16, the sixth angel-power gathers the kings of the earth and of the whole habitable, "into the place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon." This is equivalent to saying that Armageddon is in the land where Hebrew was wont to be spoken. So "the abyss," where the destroying angel was to torment, was the Holy Land and the Greek empire, in which he would help to "set up an abomination making desolate 1,290 years" (Dan. 12:11). "The death" which "the men" of the apostasy so earnestly desired (ver. 6) was not natural death. This death did not flee from them, but pursued them on every side, and overtook them by thousands. It was "the death" which could only be arrived at by the woe-plagues of the sixth trumpet, which was for the slaying of "the third of the men" of the catholic world. It was political death they desired, the bitterness of which they had not experienced. Subject to this, they hoped to find peace and protection from the conqueror, who would cease to torment and injure them as enemies and foreigners to his rule and institutions. "The death" at length came in aftertimes; and, when it came, it reduced "the men" of the Greek catholic superstition and empire to the condition of Rayahs -- mere dogs and slaves in the estimation of their Ottoman superiors. In the depth of this abyss, they have been prostrated without political life for upwards of four hundred years. This is their present condition, and will so continue to be, until "Yahweh shall have bent Judah for himself, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made Zion as the sword of a mighty man." This will change the situation, and be "life from the dead," not to the Greeks only, but "to the world" (Zech. 9:13; Rom. 11:15). II. Synthetic Exposition of The First Woe In the previous section, I have analysed in detail the symbols of the first woe-trumpet. I have resolved them severally into the things they signify. In this section, I shall put their significations together, and thereby show what the apostle predicted if he had recorded what he saw in plain unsymbolical terms. This is what I mean by a synthetic exposition of the first woe. 1. "And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw one who had acquired power, and become a king, precipitate the forces of his kingdom upon the territory of the eastern Roman empire. And to this king was yielded the power of Arabia. 2. And he removed the barriers by which Arabia was shut up from the world without, and a fiery host issued forth, and, by reason of the smoking fierceness of their wrath, subverted the imperial Byzantine authority, and changed the political aerial constitution of the catholic countries they overrun. 3. "The wrathful hosts that invaded the eastern Roman empire were Arabians like locusts for multitude; and they had power fatal as the power of scorpions. 4. And it was commanded them by one, styled the Commander of the Faithful, that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, nor any green thing, nor any tree, but only those men who have not the truth of the Deity in their understandings. 5. And to the Arabians it was given that they should not extinguish the sovereignty of these men, but that they should be tormented in war during one hundred and fifty years, with a scorpion-like torment. 6. "And in those days shall these ignorant professors of christianity seek political extinction, and shall not find it; and shall earnestly desire to be a conquered people, and political death by conquest shall flee from them. 7. "And the resemblances of these Arabians when embattled exhibit them as cavalry prepared for war; and on their heads they wore yellow turbans; and their faces were bearded, and they had long flowing hair like the tresses of women; and their spirit was ferocious as lions. 9. And they had on polished steel cuirasses; and the sound of the right and left wings of their armies were of multitudes of cavalry rushing into battle. 10. And they trailed in their rear, or tails of their hosts, scorpion-artillery for destruction; and their power to hurt the rest of men westward was also one hundred and fifty years. 11. "And they had over them a king styled a Caliph, the Messenger of Destruction among the subjects of the eastern Roman empire, or 'the abyss.' In the land of the Hebrew, he earned the name Abaddon, or Destroyer; and in the land of the Greek, that of Apollyon, which signifies the same. 12. "One woe, that of the fifth trumpet, is passed away after three hundred years; and, behold, there come two woes more before the consummation -- the sixth and seventh trumpets, after these things." III. Historical Exposition 1. Origin of the Star Justinian was invested with the majesty of the Sixth Head of the Dragon, or in other words, clothed with the sun, during a reign upon the Constantinopolitan throne of thirty-eight years, from a.d. 527 to a.d. 565. The triple scourge of war, pestilence, and famine afflicted his subjects, and "his reign is disgraced," says Gibbon, "by a visible decrease of the human species, which has never been repaired in some of the fairest countries of the globe." After Justinian's death the Byzantine throne was occupied by Justin II., Tiberius II., Maurice, Phocas, and Heraclius. Phocas reigned from a.d. 602 to a.d. 610; and his successor Heraclius till a.d. 642. It was in the reign of Heraclius that the fifth trumpet began to sound; and that "the abomination of desolation" established itself as the normal condition of things in the Holy Land. The events transpiring in the Pit of the Abyss until it was opened by the Star, were contemporaneous with the first twenty-three years of the reign of Heraclius. Mohammed, who was the principal agent in the development of the Star-Power, began his career at Mecca, a.d. 609, by proclaiming the unity of God, and his own apostleship. In three years he had made fourteen proselytes; and in 613, assumed the prophetic office. On this occasion he said: "Friends and kinsmen, I offer you, and I alone can offer, the most precious of gifts, the treasures of this world, and of the world to come. God has commanded me to call you to this service. Who among you will support my burthen?" His uncle, Abu Taleb, tried to turn him from what he considered his impracticable design. "Spare your remonstrances," rejoined Mohammed; "if they should place the sun on my right hand, and the moon on my left, they should not divert me from my course." Like Alexander and the Napoleons, first and third, he felt within an impulse irresistible, which impelled him blindly upon a course, which had been marked out for him to run in the preparation of a power, that should torment and destroy the corruptors and enemies of the truth. For ten years after, he labored in Mecca to turn the Arabs from idolatry to the belief and worship of a sole Deity. "Citizens and pilgrims," said Abu Taleb, "listen not to the tempter, hearken not to his impious novelties. Stand fast in the worship of Al Lata and Al Uzzah." Nevertheless, Abu Taleb, the prince of the republic of Mecca, protected his person from violence. The leaders of the people repeatedly reproached him for this. "Thy nephew," said they, "reviles our religion; he accuses our wise forefathers of ignorance and folly; silence him quickly, lest he kindle tumult and disorder in the city. If he persevere, We shall draw our swords against him and his adherents, and thou shalt be responsible for the blood of thy fellowcitizens." On the death of Abu Taleb, and the accession of Abu Sophian, a zealous votary of the idols, protection was withdrawn from the deserter and denier of the gods of Arabia; and Mohammed found it necessary to take flight from Mecca, accompanied by Abubeker who afterwards succeeded him, and to seek refuge in Medina. The flight of Mohammed occurred a.d. 622, and has fixed the memorable aera of the Hegira, which still discriminates the lunar years of the Mohammedan nations. On his establishment in Medina, this Unitarian Prophet assumed the exercise of the regal and sacerdotal office. He was now a Pontiff-King in the Pit of the Abyss, rising into great power and dominion, like that other Pontiff-King in Rome, who was at the same time, as the spiritual chief of the image-worshippers of "the abyss," assuming divine supremacy over "the earth." Of the two, Mohammed was, doubtless, less of an impostor than the prophet of the west. The pope is an idolator, and the prince of idolators; but the Prince of Medina among his companions was the champion of the Divine Unity; and the uncompromising enemy of idolatory in every form. He was now "a star in the heaven," where he shone without a rival till a.d. 632. After a reign of six years, fifteen hundred Moslems, in arms and in the field, renewed their oath of allegiance. The deputy of Mecca witnessed the review, and was astonished at the devout fervour of his attendants. "I have seen," said he, "the Chosroes of Persia and the Caesars of Rome, but never did I behold a king among his subjects like Mohammed among his companions." The Flight (Hegira) of Mohammed In 622 a.d. Mohammed fled from Mecca to seek refuge in Medina. The Islam calendar commenced at that time, a.d. 622 being Year One according to its reckoning, and 1917 being year 1335 (the moslem, year being based on lunar times.) The time-periods of Daniel's prophecy reveal some interesting conclusions when reckoned from that commencing date. 2. The Pit Becomes A Burning Furnace The choice of an independent people had exalted the fugitive of Mecca to the rank of a sovereign; so that he was now invested with the prerogative of forming alliances, and of waging offensive or defensive war. In other words, being now the Star of the Pit he possessed the power of kindling within its limits a burning furnace, in which might be melted down into one homogeneous mass, all the tribes of Arabia. This was the arduous work before Mohammed in the last years of his reign -- to eradicate idolatry, subdue the Jews, and to conquer the Arabs, so as to unite all under his standard. His former moderation, the effect of weakness, was superseded by a fiercer and more sanguinary tone; and he gave out that he was commanded to propagate his religion by the sword, to destroy the monuments of idolatry, and to pursue the unbelieving nations of the earth. The martial prophet fought in person at nine battles, or sieges; and fifty enterprises of war were achieved in ten years by himself or lieutenants. "The Key of the Pit of the Abyss was given to him;" nor was he ignorant of the nature of the key bestowed upon him. "The sword," said he, "is the key of heaven and of hell." It was not long before the fire was kindled in the furnace of the pit. The battle of Beder, a.d. 623, was the spark that set the fuel all ablaze. This led to the battle of Ohad, six miles north of Medina. In this, Mohammed was wounded. In a.d. 625, Medina was besieged by the troops of Mecca, but without capture; and on retiring, the enemy no longer hoped to subvert the throne, or to check the conquests, of the invincible exile. By exciting and joining in this attack upon Medina, the Jews of Arabia brought upon themselves the fierce wrath of the Star of the Pit. The fiery furnace he had kindled consumed them. Their castles were reduced, and Chaibar, the seat of the Jewish power in Arabia, submitted to the yoke. Under the reign of Omar, the Jews of Chaibar were transplanted to Syria; in justification of which he alleged the dying injunction of Mohammed, that only the one true religion should be professed in his native land Arabia. The attack upon Medina was retaliated upon Mecca. Mohammed assembled ten thousand soldiers for its conquest. The idolators being hopeless of success, surrendered at discretion. Their prince, the haughty Abu Sophian, presented the keys of the city, observing, that the son of Abdallah had acquired a mighty kingdom, and confessing, under the scymitar of Omar, that he was the Apostle of the true God. Mohammed forgave the guilt, and united the factions of Mecca. The chiefs of the idolators were prostrate at his feet. "What mercy," said he, "can you expect from the man whom you have wronged?" "We confide in the generosity of our kinsman." "And you shall not confide in vain: begone! you are safe, you are free!" The people of Mecca deserved their pardon by the profession of Islam; and after an exile of seven years, the fugitive missionary was enthroned as the prince and prophet of his native country. The conquest of Mecca determined the faith and obedience of the Arabian tribes. Yet an obstinate remnant still adhered to the idolatry and liberty of their ancestors. Four thousand pagans descended into the valley of Honain hoping to take the prophet at disadvantage. At first, the battle prevailed against the Moslems, and their prophet greatly endangered; "O my brethren," he repeatedly cried with sorrow and indignation, "I am the son of Abdallah, I am the apostle of truth! O man, stand fast in the faith! O God, send down thy succor!" The flying Moslems returned from all sides to the holy standard. The tide of battle had turned against the idolators, which Mohammed, standing in his stirrups to overlook the conflict, perceiving, clapped his hands with joy, and exclaimed, "at last the fire is kindled in the furnace." His conduct and example had restored the battle, and he animated his victorious troops to inflict a merciless revenge. From the field of Honain, he marched to the siege of Tayef, sixty miles southeast of Mecca. After a siege of twenty days; he sounded a retreat, but he retreated with a song of devout triumph, and affected to pray for the repentance and safety of the unbelieving city. He was followed by the deputies of Tayef, who dreaded the repetition of the siege. "Grant us. O apostle of God, a truce of three years, with the toleration of our ancient worship." "Not a month, not an hour." "Excuse us at least from the obligation of prayer." "Without prayer religion is of no avail." They submitted in silence; their temples were demolished, and the same sentence of destruction was executed on all the idols of Arabia. His lieutenants, on the shores of the Red Sea, the ocean, and the gulph of Persia, were saluted by the acclamations of a believing people. Thus, the fiery wars of this "great furnace" of the pit destroyed idolatry, and brought the Arab nation to submit to the God and sceptre of Mohammed. The sword of Arabia was the sword of God, forged and sharpened for judgment upon the idolators of Syria and Greece. Hitherto, the Pit of the Abyss was closed. The wars raging within were internal fires, whose smoke had not drifted toward the west. The star-power that had kindled the furnace, had first to subdue all enemies within the pit of the abyss, before it could issue forth, and precipitate its incendiary fires upon the nations of the abyss itself. The key-sword of power was not only given to the Star of the Pit, but he was to use it in opening the pit. The fact that the reigning star power in the heaven did open the pit, the manner in which he opened it, and in what sense the smoke arose from the pit, and locusts issued out of it "into the earth," as the falling of the star therein -- is illustrated by what follows. 3. The Pit of the Abyss Opened When Heraclius, emperor of the Roman world, returned victorious from the Persian war, a.d. 629, Mohammed having conquered and converted the idolators of Arabia, and thereby united them into one kingdom, judged that the time had come to invite the princes and nations of the Catholic Idolatry to abandon the worship of images and demons, commonly known among the ignorant as the ghosts of dead men and women. He beheld with great disgust and contempt the condition of the catholic apostasy from the religion of Christ. He saw what Gibbon relates. "The christians" (!) says he, "of the seventh century had relapsed into a semblance of paganism; their public and private vows were addressed to the relics and images that disgraced the temples of the east: the throne of the Almighty was darkened by a cloud of martyrs, saints, and angels, the objects of popular veneration; and the Collyridion heretics who flourished in the fruitful soil of Arabia, invested the Virgin Mary with the name and honors of a goddess." In the Koran, or Mohammedan Bible, ch. 5., the catholics of the Roman empire are distinctly charged with worshipping the Virgin Mary as God; and in ch. 9, it is said of the priests and monks specifically: "Very many of the priests and monks devour the substance of men in vanity, and obstruct the way of God." This referred to their fraudulent gains by the sale, exhibition, and false miracles attached to relics. Mohammed was right; these shaven crowns "obstructed the way of God," as the clergy of all orders and degree in "christendom" have been doing, and are doing, ever since, even to this day. Though originally an ignorant pagan Arab, and afterwards but imperfectly instructed in the scriptures, he had become wiser than the whole catholic world. He not only spurned the gods of his native land, but he vindicated the Divine Unity against "the infidels" who darkened the Almighty's throne by the senseless objects of their disgraceful and demoralizing superstition. Being the providentially developed military apostle of the Divine Unity, he offered all idolators, or worshippers of demons, the alternative of conversion and peace, or idolatry and war. Hearing of the presence of the Roman emperor at Emesa, he sent an ambassador to him, and invited him to the profession of Islam. At first their intercourse was amicable, but their friendship proved of short continuance. One of his envoys had been murdered; and the rapacious spirit of the Saracens -- the lion tooth characteristic of the locusts -- inflamed by the new religion, or smoking in the pit, burned to be avenged. The murder afforded their star-king a decent pretext for gratifying it; and he forthwith ordered the invasion of the territory of Palestine eastward of the Jordan, a.d. 630. A small force of three thousand Saracens encountered the Roman army at Muta. After losing three generals, they effected a safe retreat under Caled, who afterwards was renowned as "the Sword of God." This was the first military action that tried the valor of the Moslems against a foreign enemy. It was an opening of the pit; the initiation only of the enterprise in which the forces of the Star may be said to have got the worst of it. Mohammed now solemnly proclaimed war against the Romans. The Moslems were discouraged. They alleged the intolerable heat of the summer. "Hell," said the indignant prophet, "is much hotter." He advanced at the head of ten thousand horse, and twenty thousand foot. After a painful march, in which they suffered much from lassitude and thirst, aggravated by the scorching and pestilential winds of the desert, they arrived at Tabuc, midway between Medina and Damascus. Beyond this he did not advance. Caled, however, spread around the terror of his name, and the prophet received the submission of the tribes and cities, from the Euphrates to Ailah, at the head of the Red Sea. The power, styled by Schlegel, "the new power of hell," was still restricted to "the pit of the abyss." An expedition against Syria had been set in motion, but was arrested in its march at Medina, by the death of Mohammed in that city, a.d. 632. Mohammed was succeeded in the throne of the kingdom of Arabia by the venerable Abubeker, who was now "Successor of the prophet, Caliph, and Commander of the Faithful." But the death of Mohammed was the signal of independence; and Abubeker found himself the chief of a power and religion which tottered to its foundations. He forthwith assembled an army of forty thousand men to subdue the rebellion, which sought the reestablishment of the old idolatry. Thus the furnace was rekindled in the pit of the abyss, and smoke ascended toward the heaven. After exhorting the Moslems to confide in the aid of God and his apostle, Abubeker attacked the idolators vigorously. Though unsuccessful at first, he at length broke the power of the rebels, who, without chief or cause, were suppressed by the power and discipline of the rising monarchy; and the whole nation again possessed, and more steadfastly held, the religion of the Koran. 4. The Smoke and Locusts Ascend out of the Pit The time had now arrived for the Star-Kingdom-Power of the Arabian Pit to "fall into the earth," and to open it completely and permanently for the egress of the smoke with its clouds of locusts, for "the darkening of the sun and the air." At this crisis, as we learn from the fourth verse of the chapter under consideration, "it was commanded them (the smoke issuing locusts) that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, nor any green thing, nor any tree; but those men only who have not the seal of the Deity in their foreheads." This is explained by what follows. Abubeker, who was the first caliph, by his victory over the rebels had restored the unity of the faith and government; and he now resolved, a.d. 632, to provide immediate exercise for the restless spirit of the Saracens, in the prosecution of a holy war. He accordingly despatched a circular to the locusts of the pit, saying: "This is to acquaint you that I intend to send the true believers into Syria, to take it out of the hands of the infidels" (or to darken their sun and air); "and I would have you know that the fighting for religion is an act of obedience to God." The summons was responded to by numerous intrepid bands of Saracens, who flocked to the camp at Medina, where they were reviewed by the Caliph. In his instructions to the chiefs of the army, he said: "Remember that you are always in the presence of God, on the verge of death, in the assurance of judgment, and the hope of Paradise. Avoid injustice and oppression; consult with your brethren, and study to preserve the love and confidence of your troops. When you fight the battles of the Lord, acquit yourselves like men, without turning your backs; but let not your victory be stained with the blood of women or children. Destroy no palm trees, nor burn any fields of corn. Cut down no fruit trees, nor do any mischief to cattle, only such as you kill to eat. When you make any convenant or article, stand to it, and be as good as your word. As you go on, you will find some religious persons who live retired in monasteries, and propose to themselves to serve God that way: let them alone, and neither kill them nor destroy their monasteries. And you will find another sort of people that belong to the synagogue of Satan, who have shaven crowns: be sure you cleave their skulls, and give them no quarter till they either turn Mohammedans or pay tribute." These shaven crowns of the synagogue of Satan were the men who had not the seal of God in their foreheads; and the alternative of death by the sword, conversion, or tribute, was the "torment" to which they were to be subjected during "five months" of years. 5. The Sun And The Air Darkened After these things, the earth was invaded, and Damascus, the capital of Syria, attacked. An army of seventy thousand succors -- indifferently styled Syrians, from the place of their birth or warfare; Greeks, from the religion and language of their sovereign; and Romans, from the appellation still assumed by the successors of Constantine -- were encountered and dispersed; and, after a siege of seventy days, Damascus was taken by storm and capitulation, a.d. 634. While being surrendered in one quarter, the city was betrayed and taken by assault in the opposite. Caled, the Sword of God, rushed in with his rapacious and sanguinary lion-toothed locusts. "No quarter," he cried, "no quarter to the enemies of the Lord;" his trumpets sounded, and a torrent of Mariolatrous blood was poured into the streets of Damascus. A large majority of the people accepted the terms of toleration and tribute offered by Abu Obeidah, the general in chief; but Caled, "the lieutenant of the Commander of the Faithful," was for a general massacre. The fury of "the Sword of God" was at length appeased; nevertheless he sternly declared that, after a respite of three days, all who left the city as exiles, with Thomas, their valiant, though unsuccessful defender, might be pursued and destroyed by the Moslems. On the fourth day, he issued from Damascus in pursuit. Having overtaken the promiscuous multitude of priests, monks and citizens, encamped in a pleasant valley, insufficiently provided with arms, and already vanquished by sorrow and fatigue, Caled and his cavalry rushed upon them, smoking with fury. Except a captive who was pardoned and dismissed, the Arabs enjoyed the satisfaction of believing that not a Virgin-Mary worshipper of either sex escaped the edge of their scymitars. Thus, the Pit of the Abyss was effectually "opened" by the key-sword in the hand of the first of the Caliphs. The "smoke of the pit" was curling and drifting over "the earth" in the direction of the Great Sea. After the battle of Yermuk, the conquest of Jerusalem, and then of Aleppo and Antioch, Heraclius fled from the country, and bid an eternal farewell to Syria, which, a.d. 639, bowed under the sceptre of the Caliphs seven hundred years after Pompey had despoiled the last of the Macedonian kings. Thus, the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke of the pit; and Syria, now become Arabian, became the seat and support of the house of Ommiyah; and the revenue, the soldiers, the ships of that powerful kingdom were consecrated to enlarge on every side the empire of the caliph-kings of the locusts, "the angel of the abyss," the Abaddon, in the land of the Hebrew tongue. But the "torment" of the catholic worshippers of images and daemons was not to be confined to the land of Israel; it was to extend to the countries where Greek was the vernacular, and there the caliph-power was to be revealed as the most potent and absolute of the globe. It was to torment with an intensity that should acquire for it in Greek the name Apollyon, the destroyer. In the ten years of the administration of the caliph Omar, the Saracens reduced to his obedience thirty-six thousand cities or castles, destroyed four thousand churches or temples of the unbelievers, and erected fourteen hundred mosques for the exercise of the religion of Mohammed. One hundred years after his flight from Mecca, the arms and reign of "the Angel of the Abyss" extended from India to the Atlantic Ocean, over the various and distant provinces which may be comprised under the names of Persia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, and Spain. Their armies, which consisted chiefly of cavalry and archers, advanced with the speed of horses, and fought with the courage of lions; and it excites no little perplexity in the mind of the historian to explain by what means the church and state of the Roman world were saved from destruction by so invincible a foe. But their preservation is attributable, not to the virtue, skill and power of those establishments, but to the fact that "to them it was given that they should not kill them." The Greek Church and State were not to be broken up and to become politically extinct; and therefore, though Constantinople was twice besieged by the Saracens, the first time for seven years, and the last for thirteen months, they could not capture it, and abolish its dominion. They were not to inflict political death upon the Byzantine Empire, which they would certainly have done had they captured Constantinople. This consummation was reserved for the Four Angel-Powers of the Euphrates, under the sixth trumpet. The horse-like locusts were only to darken, torment, and injure, for a specific period; and when this was passed, according to the analogy of the insects to which they were likened, to settle down so as at length to be found no longer tormenting "the earth." 6. The Torment and Injury The words used by John with respect to their mission are basanizo, and adikeo. The first is rendered torment, the last, injure. The Spirit, doubtless, intended different ideas to be represented by the different words. They were to torment, but not to kill. It is clear from this that killing was not an element of the torment. Basanidso signifies to rub upon the touchstone, or basanos; hence, to try the genuineness of a thing. The touchstone used by the Saracen Locusts was "the Koran, tribute, or the sword." They rubbed all the unsealed upon this; and according to the result, was the genuineness, or true character, of the party in their estimation. If they accepted the Koran, they were then fellowshipped as devout Moslems, and subjected neither to tribute nor death; but if they rejected the Koran, or refused to become Mohammedans, which was the same thing, then they must either pay tribute or be put to death. Such a touchstone as this could not seriously affect those who had the seal of the Deity in their foreheads. The Saracens were particularly favorable to all who were persecuted by the constituted authorities of the Greeks. They became their protectors and allies, not their tormentors. To the Saracen touchstone they replied after this sort: "The Greeks are determined to abide the determination of the sword; but with the Greeks we desire no communion, either in this world or in the next, and we adjure forever the Byzantine tyrant, his synod of Chalcedon, and his Melchite slaves. For ourselves, we are resolved to live and die in the profession of the gospel and unity of Christ. It is impossible for us to embrace the revelations of your prophet; but we are desirous of peace, and cheerfully submit to pay tribute, and obedience to his temporal successors." The Arab Empire At Its Greatest The Saracens extended their conquests throughout North Africa and Spain. In the east they occupied all of Arabia and Persia as far as India. wherever they went they offered to the conquered the choice of either the Koran or the Sword. The word adikeo contains no idea answerable to that of using a touchstone of any kind. To injure, without defining how the injury should be inflicted, conveys all the meaning of the word in the text. They were to apply the touchstone five months of years; and they were to injure, or commit offensive operations, for an equal length of time. This we shall find was the fact. Power to torment and injure was divinely appointed to "the Angel of the Abyss" for three hundred years; and beyond this limitation he could not destroy. 7. The Angel of the Abyss The locusts had a king over them, the Angel of the Abyss -- not the angel of the pit of the abyss, but of "the abyss" at large. The star was especially related to "the pit"; and the Angel-king, to "the abyss". The star-power, as we have seen, was the kingdom of Arabia before its forces were precipitated upon "the earth"; while the Destroying Angel of the abyss was the Arabian Empire of the Caliphs, which, but for the Star-power of the pit, would never have existed in the world to torment and injure the nations of the abyss. The caliphs united in their own persons the kingly and priestly characters. The first caliph was Abubeker, who began to reign on the death of Mohammed, a.d. 632. In a.d. 718, the end of the first century of the Hegira, the caliphs were the most potent and absolute monarchs of the globe. They reigned by the right of conquest over the nations of the east. Under the last of the Ommiades, the Arabian empire extended two hundred days' journey from east to west, from the confines of Tartary and India to the shores of the Atlantic ocean. In the year 750, a revolution dethroned the caliphs of the house of Omniyah, styled the Omniades, and set up in their stead the descendants of Abbas, uncle to Mohammed, and known as the Abbasides. Hitherto, Damascus had been the throne of the Arabian empire; but it was removed by Almansor to Bagdad, "the City of Peace," on the eastern bank of the Tigris, a.d. 762. This was a few miles beyond the old Roman Euphratean frontier. War was now no longer the passion of the Saracens; their stern enthusiasm was softened by time and prosperity, and it was no longer easy to allure them by the hopes of spoil and of paradise. The luxury of the caliphs relaxed the nerves and terminated the the progress of the Arabian empire. The application of the touchstone now necessarily ceased. The power of the caliphs being established over "the abyss," the alternative of "the Koran, tribute, or the sword," could no longer be propounded to them. The "torment," therefore, by this touchstone was no longer applied. It could not be in the nature of things. Power was given to them to basanize the Virgin-Mary and image worshippers five months, and beyond this period they could not "torment." When did these five months begin? and how long a period do they represent? In answer to the first question, I reply that they began when Abubeker, the first caliph, fulfilled the fourth verse of this ninth chapter, in commanding the generals and captains of his Syrian army to apply the touchstone according to his instructions. This was a.d. 632, which is doubtless the beginning of the five months of tormentation. As to how long a period these five months represent, the key to this question is the nature of the torment. We now know what this is; and we know also, from history and the nature of things, that the torment did not cease at the end of five months of days, but continued for many such terms of five months each. On the contrary, it continued until there were no more within the scope of the woe to be tormented, the power of the caliphs having reached the full. In the sanguinary civil war between the Ommiades and the Abbassides, the Greeks had seized the opportunity of avenging themselves, and enlarging their limits: so that, a.d. 781-2, found the Greeks arrogant, and the frontier of the Arabian empire diminished. This was five months of years, or 150 years, from Abubeker's command to torment, or "cleave the skulls" of the shaven crowns of the synagogue of Satan, and to give them no quarter till they turned Mohammedans or paid tribute. But, though the power to torment had passed away with the period assigned for tormentation, the Apollyon-Caliphs were still formidable, and powerful for offensive military operations, such as occur between hostile states. From a.d. 782 to a.d. 805, the caliphs Mohadi and Haroun al Rashid inflicted great calamities upon the Greeks. Haroun invaded their territories eight times; and, as often as they declined the payment of the regular tribute, they were taught to feel that a month of depredation, or adikia, injury, was more costly than a year of submission. They were exposed to these hostile inroads so long as the caliphs held the sceptre of the east. In the national and religious conflicts of the two empires, peace was without confidence, and war without mercy. Quarter was seldom given in the field; those who escaped the edge of the sword were condemned to hopeless servitude, or exquisite torture; and a catholic emperor relates with visible satisfaction the execution of the Saracens of Crete, who were flayed alive, or plunged into caldrons of boiling oil. But, the time alloted for the Arabian and Greek empires to cease their sanguinary conflicts, in the beginning of the tenth century was drawing to a close. The destroying power of the caliph-angel of the abyss, as against the Greek empire, was limited to three hundred years, or the end of the second period of five months. It was to decline and fall. The luxury of the caliphs, the rebellion of the Carmathians, and the revolt of the provinces, at length deprived the Arabs of the sceptre of the east. The revolt of the provinces circumscribed the dominions of the caliphs within the walls of Bagdad; until the independent Persic-Moslem dynasty of the Bowides interposing on account of factions prevailing there, advanced a.d. 933, to Bagdad; stripped the caliph of his secular office and supremacy; and reduced him to his spiritual functions as Chief Pontiff of Islamism, the mere phantom thenceforward of the departed power of the Destroying Angel of the Abyss. Thus died "Apollyon" by the suicide of his own hands twice five months of years, or three complete centuries, from the issuing of the smoke out of the pit of the abyss a.d. 632. "The first woe is passed away," a.d. 933; "behold, there come yet two woes after these things." Act II -- Sixth Trumpet or Second Woe 1. Eastern Part Summary Still in response to the prayers of all saints, a voice from the four horns of the golden altar of incense commands the four messenger powers, confined by the great river Euphrates, to be loosed. They are prepared for successful aggression against the Byzantine empire during "the hour and day and month and year," that, at the end of this period, they may slay with political extinction, the power of the men who ruled the Eastern Third of the Roman orb, and worshipped demons and images, and were murderers, and sorcerers, fornicators, and thieves; and had not been smitten by the judgments of the four winds -- See Tabular Analysis, Vol. 2 page 116. TIME OF EVENTS From April 29, a.d. 1062, to May 29, 1453 -- 391 years 30 days. Translation Apoc. 9:13-21 13. And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard one voice out of the four horns of the altar of gold which is in the sight of the Deity, saying to the sixth angel, who had the trumpet, "Loose the four angels, which have been bound by the great river Euphrates." 15. And the Four Angels having been prepared were loosed for the hour and day and month and year, that they might kill the third of the men. 16. And the number of the hosts of the cavalry was two myriads of myriads: and I heard the number of them. 17. And thus I saw the horses in the vision; and those who sat upon them having breasts fiery and hyacinthine and sulphurous; and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions, and out of their mouths there burst forth fire and smoke and sulphur. 18. By these three were killed the third of the men, by the fire and by the smoke and by the sulphur, bursting forth out of their mouths. For their powers are in their mouth and in their tails; for their tails are like serpents, having heads, and with these do they injure. 20. And the rest of the men who were not killed by these plagues changed not from the works of their hands, that they might not worship the daemonials and idols of gold and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood, which can neither see nor hear, nor walk. 21. And changed not from their murders, nor from their sorceries, nor from their fornication, nor from their thefts. Notes In the above translation there are some variations from the English Version. Instead of "a voice," I have rendered phonen mian, one voice; for, although it issued from the four horns of the altar, there were not four voices, but only one, as in the text. Instead of "in the river," I have preferred the rendering of epi to potamo, "by the river;" the preposition is rendered in this sense in Matt. 24:33, "He is near epi thurais by or at the doors." In verses 17 and 18, I have rendered ekporeuetai and ekporeuomeno by "burst forth" and "bursting forth," instead of "issued or "proceeded," as in the Bible Union version. I have so rendered it from the use of the verb in Apoc. 4:5, where it is used in connection with lightnings and thunders from the throne; when they go forth, they do it burstingly. The phrase to triton ton anthropon, I have rendered "the third of the men," instead of "the third part of men," -- "part" is not in the Greek, and the definite article ton, should be translated as referable to a certain class of men; those of the Byzantine Third, namely, not having the seal of the Deity in their foreheads. It was that third which was to be killed, not the third of mankind in general; but "the third of," or belonging to, "the men who were unsealed." In verse 16, ho arithmos strateumaton tou hippikou, is rendered in the C.V. "the number of the army of the horsemen." This is a version very regardless of the original. I have translated it the number of the hosts of the cavalry -- the number having regard to the individual troopers in the aggregate. In verse 19, the English Version reads "their power is in their mouth and in their tails." Griesbach and Tregelles prefer, "the power of the horses is in their mouth and in their tails." Greenfield's edition of Mills, omits "and in their tails" from the text, and inserts it in the margin. I prefer the reading hai exousiai auton en to stomati auton eisi, kai en tais ourais auton, their powers are in their mouth, and in their tails; my reason for this preference will appear in the exposition. 1. The Symbols Explained 1. "One Voice of the Four Horns" "And I heard One Voice out of the Four Horns of the Altar of Gold which is in the sight of the Deity, saying, &c." This is the same altar as that in the scene pictured in Apoc. 8:3, which may be fitly reproduced here by way of remembrance. "And another angel came and stood by the altar, having a golden censer; and there was given to him many odors, that he might cast for the prayers of all the saints, upon the golden altar which is in sight of the throne. And the smoke of the odors for the prayers of the saints ascended out of the hand of the angel, in the sight of the Deity. And the angel took the censer, and filled it from the fire of the altar, and cast into the earth and there were voices and thunders and lightnings and an earthquake. And the Seven Angels having the seven trumpets prepared themselves that they might sound." This scene is, as it were, a general preface to the sounding of each of the seven trumpets. That is, each trumpet developes its judgments retributively upon the enemies of the saints, and responsively to their prayers. The prayers of the saints were not to be confined to the apostolic age; but to ascend till Christ the avenger should return. "Men," said Jesus, "ought always to pray, and not to faint." This saying he illustrated by the parable of the unjust judge and the widow, in Luke 18:1-8. "Avenge me," said she, "of mine adversary;" but he would not, until wearied by her importunity, he complied to get rid of her complaints. If an unjust judge would do this, "shall not the Deity," the just judge of all the earth, "avenge his own elect, who cry day and night unto him, though he bear long with them? I tell you," said Jesus, "he will avenge them speedily. Nevertheless when the Son of Man cometh, shall he find the faith upon the earth?" In all apocalyptic times, the elect of the Deity are represented as crying unto him "to judge and avenge their blood on them that dwell upon the earth" (ch. 6:10). In Apoc. 8:3-5, the sounding of all the trumpets is dramatically represented as responsive to "the prayers of all the saints;" and consequently, not to the prayers of those saints only who lived between a.d. 324 and a.d. 395; but also to the prayers of the saints living contemporarily with all the trumpets. The successive soundings of the first five trumpets have brought us down to a.d. 933; and we have seen how the safety of the saints was guaranteed by the command of the Angel of the Abyss to his destroying agents to torment only the unsealed. The saints were not to be harmed by the special plagues; for they were "nourished" while the unsealed, who were their enemies, were being scourged. In all the days of their nourishment, which were 1260, their prayers were "ascending out of the angel's nand in the sight of the Deity." They ascended as sweet odors of the golden altar, for his eyes were always upon the Woman's place in the wilderness -- ch. 12:14. Her seed had been contemporary with the seals as the four living ones full of eyes; they were coeval with the first five trumpets as the golden altar; with the sixth, as "the four horns of the altar of gold;" and with the seventh trump et as the four living ones, and in its seventh vial manifestation, as "the nave of the Deity" and "the four and twenty elders sitting upon their thrones" (ch. 11:16-17; 15:7). Hence, in all the apocalypse, under one symbol or another, the saints are discerned in position; and that position is always in opposition to "the men who have not the seal of the Deity in their foreheads;" and as constituting no part of the symbols representing their civil and ecclesiastical organizations. Now, although, according to the pattern in the Mosaic Tabernacle. this living altar of gold has four horns, answering to the four living ones. and four comers of the square, but one spirit pervades the whole. The multitude of the true believers which compose the altar "are of one heart and of one soul" (Acts 4:32). In singleness of heart -- "with one mind and one mouth they glorified the Deity, even the Father of the Lord Jesus Christ" (Acts 2:46; Rom. 15:6). With this spirit of unanimity, resulting from their being sealed in their foreheads with the seal of the living God, they cause their prayers to ascend as burning odors -- as one voice out of the four horns -- and not a distinct and discordant voice from each horn. In "the vision" there was only "one voice." It was the voice of the altar of gold, for it proceeded from the four horns thereof. This voice of prayer said, "Loose the four angels;" and, in answer to the prayer addressed "to the sixth angel, that had the trumpet," "the four angels were loosed." This unanimous voice of prayer, ascending from hearts whose faith was more precious than gold which perishes, was addressed, I say, to the sixth angel. This was equivalent to addressing the Father-Deity, whose apocalyptic symbol is "a Lamb as it had been slain, having Seven Horns and Seven Eyes." This represents Omnipotence and Omniscience manifested in flesh that had been slain, and afterwards "justified in spirit." These seven horns and seven eyes, viewed apart from the slain Lamb, represent "the Seven Spirits of the Deity sent forth into all the earth." These seven spirits as sent forth are symbolized by the Seven Angels, who in all the earth sound the seven trumpets. It is the Omnipotent and and Omniscient Spirit, in sevenfold manifestation, that sounds. He, incarnate in the Lamb, creates powers in the earth, stirs up their ambitions, and impels them on to destinies which they can neither control nor see. "There is no power," says Paul, "but of the Deity;" and when judgments are abroad in a country, the spirit of Yahweh is in an unquiet state (Zech. 6:8). In the previous trumpets, we have seen illustrations of the terrible nature of the inquietude of the Spirit. The Goths, Huns, Vandals, and Saracens, were embodiments of this unrest. When they acquired motion, they swept as a tornado over the guilty; fell upon them like hail and fire mingled with blood; plunged in among them as a great mountain burning with fire; scathed them as with a burning torch; smote them, darkened them, destroyed them with scorpion-torment, and killed them, as we shall see, with serpents. And all this in vindication of "the truth as it is in Jesus;" in retribution of blasphemy, daemon-worship, and idolatry; and in retaliation of war against the saints, whom they labored, but too successfully, to subdue. Now, the Spirit created and excited these powers as he operated upon Pharaoh when he hardened his heart; and as he will hereafter operate upon the powers that be now, when he shall put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom, or power and strength unto the Eighth Head of the Beast, until his words be fulfilled (ch. 17:13, 17). It was the same Spirit that inhabited the golden altar, only that it was incarnate in the altar by the truth understood, believed, and obeyed. This incarnation of spirit is holy, and, standing "in the sight of the Deity," as his holy altar, "smokes" with the fragrant odors of enlightened zeal and indignation against "every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of the Deity." With "one voice" this emanation of spirit cries day and night, through the angel of the altar, to be avenged. This cry ascends from spirit, through spirit, to the Eternal Spirit -- from the truth incarnate in the saints; through "the Lord the Spirit," who makes intercession for them; to the Father of the Lord Jesus Christ. The answer to this cry sets in motion the whole machinery of judgment exhibited in the scenery of the apocalypse, which ultimates in the consummation which completely and thoroughly avenges his elect. In addressing the sixth angel, then, the Deity was addressed by the "one voice from the four horns of the altar of gold." The Spirit had the trumpet, which he sounded in the loosing of the four angels, in the killing of the Third, and in the overthrow of the Tenth of the City (ch. 9:15, 18; 11:13); and all of this, a judicial development through seven centuries, in response to that one voice so influential before the throne. The altar of gold is said to be enopion tou Theou, which I have rendered, "in the sight of the Deity." Literally, enopion signifies in the eye, from en, in, and opi, dative of ops, the eye. The Golden Altar Community is in the eye of the Deity, in the same sense that the twelve tribes of Israel were in his eye when they dwelt in the Holy Land; but, when expelled therefrom by the Assyrians, were said to have been removed out of his sight (2 Kings 17:18). The Golden Altar Community have never been "removed out of his sight," as Israel and Judah were. But, can any thing be removed out of the sight of him who sees all things? In a certain sense it can. Now, concerning the Holy Land, by way of illustration, Moses says, in Deut. 11:12: "It is a land which Yahweh thine Elohim careth for; the eyes of Yahweh thine Elohim are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year." When, therefore, Israel and Judah were dwelling there, they were in his sight; for his eyes were upon them, being upon the land; but, when expelled, they were not within the landscape, and, therefore, out of his sight. But they are to return from captivity; and then, the prophet says, "in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight" (Hos. 6:2); that is, in the Holy Land. In a like sense, the Golden Altar Community is in his eye, or in his presence, or before him. It is sojourning, and has been for a long series of ages, among the nations, kindreds, and tongues, which have been given over to the Dragon and the Beast, and which have been made drunk by the Mother of Harlots that sits upon them. But in the midst of all these, it is not hidden from his sight. It is before him in all the brightness of fine gold. It is the Altar of gold from which ascends sweet odors in the holy and heavenly in Christ Jesus. 2. "Loose The Four Angels" To loose is the opposite of to bind. The nature of the loosing depends upon that of the thing bound. The things to be loosed in the text before us are "the four angels." These are the symbols of the "two myriads of myriads of cavalry" by which "the third" is killed. The four angels, therefore, represent four powers. These were "bound". A power bound is either a power restrained from action, or bound by its own territorial limits. An example of the former occurs in the Dragon shut up in the abyss. Here the Dragon-power is restrained from acting -- from "deceiving the nations." When it is "loosed," its wonted action is restored, and it returns to its old work of deceiving (ch. 20:3, 7, 8). The four angel-powers of the sixth trumpet were bound territorially; for we are informed that they "had been bound -- dedemenous -- by the great river Euphrates." This river was the boundary of their dominion, and divided it from the territory of "the Third" which they were to kill. To loose these Oriental powers was to cause them to cross the Euphrates, to invade with their myriads of cavalry the Eastern Third of the Roman inhabited earth, and to extend their own dominion at its expense. They "had been bound by the great fiver Euphrates," until the time of their loosing arrived. They were eastern powers, therefore. The countries east of the Euphrates were the area of their preparation for the work they had to do. They were prepared angel powers; therefore it is written, "The four angels having been prepared were loosed." While they were in preparation, or being prepared, they were confined, or bounded within confines, that did not extend further west or southwest than the Euphrates. The powers or angels were not contemporary. They were not all four being prepared at one and the same time. They were successively prepared messenger-powers, to be brought into action one after the other. Hence, the loosing of the four angels was not simultaneous. First, one angel was loosed: then followed an interval; after that, a second: then a second interval; the third angel was next unbound, and executed his mission: a third interval then ensued; and, lastly, the fourth angel was loosed, and he consummated the work of killing "the third." Thus, these four angel-powers may very properly be styled Euphratean. The fourth angel still exists, and occupies the capital in which the throne of the extinct "third" flourished for a thousand years. It is, therefore, by origin and possession, Euphratean; for this "great river" flows through its territory. Hence, "the Great River Euphrates" is made the symbol of the fourth angel in the period coincident with the advent of Christ (ch. 16:12, 15). 3. Symbolic Period of the Loosing These four angel-powers of the Euphratean region of the globe, were loosed for the execution of a mission to be completed in a specific period -- "they were loosed that they might kill the third of the men at the end of, eis, until, the hour, and day, and month and year," eniauton. Here was a whole period, which began with the complete preparation of the first angel-power, and ended with the consummation of the work of the four angels, which was the putting to death of "the third" (ver. 18). Of how many years was this period composed? The answer to this question is, of three hundred and ninety-one years and thirty days. The time of the preparation of each angel-power, is not stated. The transactions, which developed the angels beyond the Euphrates, do not enter into the vision; nor the time they consumed. The period of time has exclusive reference to the operations of the "two myriads of myriads of cavalry" against the Eastern Third peoples, after their crossing the Euphrates. But, it may be further asked, How are these 391 years and 30 days arrived at? In answer to this it may be remarked, that it is absolutely certain from the historical illustration of the fifth trumpet, that the two periods of "five months" each, were periods of 150 years; and that the whole ten months, or 300 years, was the aeon, or cycle, allotted to the tormenting and injuring ascendancy of the Caliph-Angel of the Abyss. Events having clearly demonstrated the duration of five months, we are thereby instructed as to the number of years contained in one month. A symbolical month, then, is thirty years. When a month, therefore, is associated with "hour, day and year" in symbolic time, these must be relatively proportional. The year, eniautos, that which returns into itself, or a circuit of time, must be twelve times the length of "the month;" and "the day" one thirtieth of the month; and "the hour," one twelfth of "the day." In the case of the five months events have proved that Apocalyptic time is based upon the principle of a day for a year. According to this, an eniautos or year, being twelve times more than a month of years, would be equal to three hundred and sixty ordinary years; a day, one year; and an hour, thirty days. These added together give the whole number of years for the period of the execution of the mission of the four loosed angel myriads of Euphratean cavalry, as stated above; and may be tabularly presented thus: Years Days An Hour, equal to A Day, equal to A Month, equal to A Year, equal to 360 Whole Period of the killing 391 In the Greek text the definite article ten is prefixed only to horan, hour. It does not read, "for the hour, and the day, and the month, and the year;" but, one article is prefixed to the whole time -- eis ten horan and so forth; "for, during or until the end of the hour,"&c. This was, doubtless, significant; and designed to indicate, that the divisions of time were to be taken as proportional parts of a whole p 4. Number of the Cavalry "And the number of the hosts of the cavalry was two myriads of myriads" -- theo muriathes muriathon. This is the symbolical number of the four angel-powers -- two myriads of myriads hippikou of cavalry -- equestrian myriads. The number is enormous when literally stated; but, however great, is in strict accordance with the truth of history. A myriad is ten thousand. But this must be multiplied by two, for there are "two myriads," or twenty thousand. In the phrase "two myriads of myriads," this twenty thousand becomes the multiplier of "myriads," which is the multiplicand. If muriathon, genitive plural, is to be taken as one myriad of ten thousand, then the "two myriads of myriads" will represent two hundred millions, or twenty thousand ten thousands. These 200,000,000 must not be taken as the numeration of the angel-hosts at any one time; but as the aggregate of the equestrian forces of the four angel-powers in all the 391 years and 30 days of the killing period -- their numbers were computed by millions. 5. The Horses and Their Riders "And thus I saw the horses in the vision; and those sitting upon them." The description which follows exemplifies the "thus." He saw the equestrian millions in vision. What a host to contemplate! He beheld them embattled, and vomiting forth fire and smoke, and deadly missiles. The horses he saw were not real horses, but horses in vision, or symbolical horses and symbolical riders; which in solid array and in action presented certain characteristics illustrative of the historical reality. I find the following concerning the horse in symbol in Daubuz. He says: "The horse was of old used only for warlike expeditions, and not barely to ride, draw, and drudge, as it is now practised with us. Hence, in that noble description of the horse, in Job. 39:18-25, there is no notice taken of any quality of his but what relates to war. So that the horse is the symbol of war and conquest." When, therefore, the Spirit saith in Zech. 10:3, "Yahweh Tz'vaoth hath visited his flock the House of Judah, and hath made them as his goodly horse in the battle," the meaning is, that he will ride them as their Commander-in-Chief, and make them conquerors over his enemies, glorious and successful. Thus in Psa. 45:5 r'chav, to ride, is rendered in the Septuagint by basileuein, to reign. And in several other places to ride, signifies to have dominion. "Agreeably to this," the Oneirocritics say, "that if any one dreams that he rides upon a generous horse, it denotes that he shall obtain dignity, fame, authority, prosperity, and a good name among the people; in short, all such things which may accrue to a man by good success in martial affairs." And hence, from the horse being an instrument of conquest, and therefore the symbol of the dignity, fame, power, prosperity, and success he causes, when Carthage was founded, and a horse's head was dug up by the workmen, the soothsayers gave out that the city would be warlike and powerful." "As a horse is warlike, so he is also a swift creature, and is therefore not only the symbol of conquest, but also of the speediness of it" (Joel 2:4; Jer. 4:13). The following in Hab. 1:8, concerning the swift, fierce, and invincible career of the Chaldeans against Judah, is expressive also of that of the four Euphratean angel-powers, as represented by the equestrian myriads in the sixth manpet vision: "Their horses are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves: and their horsemen shall spread themselves, and their horsemen shall come from far; they shall fly as the eagle hasteth to prey. They shall come all for violence.-- they shall scoff at the kings, and the princes shall be a scorn unto them: they shall deride every stronghold; for they shall heap dust, and take it". 6. Breasts Fiery and Hyacinthine But, there were characteristics pertaining to the armed equestrian myriads seen in vision by John, that Habakkuk did not see in the Chaldean hosts. He says, the horsemen had breasts thorakas, fiery and hyacinthine and sulphurous." These were breast-works, in military phraseology; and on these were mounted "heads," in which were "mouths." They were equestrian lion-heads, very fierce and destructive; and out of these horse-lion-head mouths "burst forth fire, and smoke, and sulphur." These horses were what is now styled horse-artillery: artillery drawn by horses, without which they would be of little use in war. "The heads of the horses were as the heads of lions," because of their roaring; "and out of their mouths burst, or roared forth the fire, smoke, and sulphur." Hence, the horses in the vision besides being symbolical of the equestrian character, and of the swift and fierce invincibility, of the Euphratean angel-powers, are representative of the new and powerful artillery used by the fourth Euphratean Angel in putting to death "the third" -- the third that belonged to the men who were unsealed. These lion-headed horses, roaring and vomiting fire, smoke, and sulphur out of their mouths, were cannons belching forth destruction. John saw them mounted on breastworks, which breasted the troops behind them; and from these "breasts," as well as from the "mouths," burst forth fire; for the riders had "breasts fiery, hyacinthine, and sulphurous." He saw these artillery mounted breastworks actively at work; and the nature of their activity he signifies by the sight and smell. They appeared to the eye "fiery and hyacinthine." This is the symbolism of the flash seen on the discharge of loaded cannon. If a little saltpetre and sulphur be triturated together, and then thrown into the fire, the hyacinthine color will be seen in their combustion. In other words, this combustion will be "fiery and hyacinthine." Hence, breastworks, lined with cannon in explosive operation, would be fiery and hyacinthine to the eye, being illuminated with these colors at every flash. The smell also would be highly "sulphurous," owing to the composition of matters vomited out of the roaring mouths of the great guns. The Apocalypse predicted that the eastern Empire would be brought to its end by "fire, smoke and brimstone" (or sulphur -- Rev. 9:18) This describes the use of cannon and gunpowder. In describing the fall of the Eastern Empire, Gibbon in The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire makes specific reference to the use of such weapons in the overthrow of Constantinople. A Turkish Mortar, 15th Century. 7. "With the Heads They Do Injure" But what he saw and smelt were not mere holiday salutes. He saw and smelt them in the battles which extinguished the political existence of "the third" -- to triton. There were not only color and smell, but death also, in "the fire, and the smoke, and the sulphur;" for "by these three," saith he: "were killed the third of the men by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the sulphur bursting forth out of their mouths. And the reason given for the deadliness of these three agents in combination, when bursting forth from the mouths of the lion-headed horses, or artillery, is "because their powers are in their mouths and in their tails." A cannon, in modern style, is divided into breech, barrel, and mouth. The Spirit only indicates the mouth and the breech, which he terms the tail, which is an appendage thereto. These "tails" were "like serpents," in the similitude of their destructive operation; for the tails were not headless. Had they been headless tails, they could have done no injury; no more than a serpent without a head. When a serpent injures, it coils, and making a fulcrum of its tail, shoots forth its head from amid the coils, which are straightened by the spring, and with its head strikes its victim with a deadly stroke. Hence, the death-dealing powers of the serpent are in its head, or mouth, and in its tail. So it is with flying artillery, and with artillery mounted on breastworks, compared herein to "serpents." Without the tail of the piece the mouth thereof could not injure; and without the mouth, or outlet, the tail could do no harm. As in the natural, "the powers" of these artillery serpents "are in their mouths and in their tails." The projecting power is in the tail of the piece; many pieces, therefore, in our time, being "breech-loading." But until of late, the projecting power and the projectile were always mouth, or muzzle-loaded -- they went through the mouth into the tail; and being well rammed, they spring or shoot forth with the voice of a lion, straightening themselves from tail to mouth, out of which they rush in "fire, smoke,and sulphur," dealing death and destruction upon what things soevermay be encountered by their "head," their tail-heads, or cannon balls; "for their tails have heads, and with these do they injure." Thus, "by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the sulphur," as an exploding power projecting the tail-heads, were "the third of the men killed." The scorpions of the first woe were highly incendiary; but they did not make breachesin walls, and overturn lofty towers: the serpents of the second woe did allthis; and in opening breaches by their tail-heads, gave admission to thefourth Euphratean angel-power into the capital of the Eastern Third,where he has been enthroned upwards of four hundred years, the ob-served of all observers; some of whom long for his decease, that theymay be enriched by the division of his estate. 8. Fire, Hyacinth, and Sulphur "Fire, hyacinth, and sulphur," and "fire, smoke, and sulphur," are symbolical of gunpowder, which is composed of charcoal, saltpetre, and sulphur. These three substances in their normal, distinct, and quiescent state, have no resemblance to fire, hyacinth, and smoke; but while, in combustion, they are the appearances, which, with the sulphurous smell, most forcibly strike our senses. Hence, the phenomena resulting from the combustion, become symbolical of the projecting force, or power, which drives forth the power that strikes with the stroke of death. Saltpetre, or nitrate of potassa, is symbolized by hyacinth-color, because of the analogy it bears to it in color when in deflagration. Nothing could be more significant of this destructive agent, first used in the warfare of nations in the fourteenth century, than the terms employed by the Spirit in this vision. The hieroglyphic can mean nothing else than the great destroying machinery of modern warfare. 9. "Lake of Fire Burning with Sulphur" It will be in place here to remark, that "these plagues," as they are fitly termed in verse 20, will be terribly operative in the destroying of the body of the beast, and in the binding of the dragon, and casting of him into the abyss (Dan. 7:11). They will be swamped in "a fiery stream," and "be given to the burning flame." This is apocalyptically styled, "a Lake of Fire burning with sulphur" (ch. 19:20). The territory upon which the beast and false prophet dominion exist, will be turned into a lake of fire by this sulphur-burning machinery of war. The saints will be in that lake, "executing the judgment written," in tormenting with fire and sulphur the worshippers of the beast (ch. 14:10). Fire, sulphur, and smoke, in these places, symbolize the same agent as they do in the second woe. The governments are not casting great guns, and storing up munitions of war in vain. They are preparing them blindly for their own destruction. Their arsenals will fall into the hands of the Lamb and his people, who will plunge incessant fire upon their enemies, the smoke of whose torment will ascend, until their power shall be totally and finally destroyed. From thenceforth, war will be no more for a thousand years. 10. "The Rest Of The Men" In the twelfth verse, the Spirit refers to hoi loipoi ton anthropon "the rest of the men who were not killed by these plagues." The to triton ton anthropon, the third of the men were killed by the plagues. The former class who were not killed, though filled with consternation at the fate of "the third," still flourished in political existence. The fourth Euphratean angel-power, though it injured them greatly in its wars upon them, was unable to kill them, as he had slain their brethren of "the third." The others, hoi loipoi, in habit all those countries of the Roman orb not included in the Ottoman empire, or fourth Euphratean angel dominion. They are known as "the Latins," who in ch. 13:4, 5, are said to worship the beast, and to be subject to his Mouth, which speaks great things and blasphemies. These are said in ch. 9:20, to worship the Daemonials and idols, the works of their hands. Notwithstanding the signal overthrow and political annihilation of their daemon and imageworshipping brethren of the eastern third, they, the Latins of the west, still continued the same abomination, as at this day. Hence, the work of judgment ceased not with the death of the third; but continues still, and will continue, until all "the daemons" are cast out, and "the idols" are thrown to the moles and the bats, and Yahweh alone is exalted in the glory of his majesty and might (Isa. 2:17-21). 11. "The Daemonials" In the English Version of Apoc. 9:20, ta daimonia, is very improperly rendered "devils." In my translation I have merely transferred it from the Greek, leaving it for explanation as a symbol. Under the word daimonion, I find the following among other significations of the noun: "Especially an inferior race of divine beings; the name by which Socrates called his genius, or the spirit he supposed to dwell within him." (Not diminutive from daimon, but neuter from daimonios). The root of the word is daimon, of which one of the senses given is "the souls of men of the golden age hovering between heaven and earth, and acting as tutelary deities; they formed the connecting link between gods and men, and so Aeschylus calls the deified Darius daimon, a daemon; hence, when daimones and theoi are joined, the daimones are gods of lower rank; and here note, that theos is never used for daimon, though daimon is for theos. In later authors, as Lucianus, in general, departed souls" -- Liddel and Scott's Lex. This was the sense of the word among the heathen who worshipped images. They foolishly imagined that all men, women, and children have within them a genius, spirit or soul which they considered to be a particle of the essence of Deity, whoever or whatever he might be; and that, therefore, said genius, spirit, or soul, was absolutely and essentially immortal or deathless. This was the daemon in a living man, such as Socrates surrendered himself blindly to the guidance and protection of. But, when men, women, and children, ceased to be creatures visibly existing, they supposed, that they still continued in being, only invisible to the naked eye. Their bodies they often burned to ashes, which they deposited in urns; nevertheless, they supposed that they were still in existence, only in a new form. They conceited that the real man was the indwelling soul; and that when the body ceased to breathe, said soul ascended into the air, or aerial, where it "hovered between heaven and earth." These were deified souls -- souls made deities by human decrees, or apotheosis. They styled them "Immortal Gods," though but "an inferior race of divine beings." Of these gods were Darius, Caesar, Alexander, and a host of others, who had made themselves "great," in the estimation of the blind multitude, who decreed divine honors to their souls, and erected statuesque copies of their perished forms, for the glorification of their friends, and the factions they were supposed to have adorned. The immortal soul in the aerial called Darius, and decreed to be a god, was what they called a daemon or a daemonion. Such daemons the heathen worshipped, and placed themselves, their families, their property, and countries, under the protection of. Hence, they styled them "tutelary deities," or divine guardians. "In classical use," says Dr. Geo. Campbell, "demon signified a divine being, though not in the highest order of their divinities, and therefore supposed not equivalent to Theos, but superior to human, and consequently, by the maxims of their theology, a proper object of adoration." "All demons," says Plato, "are an intermediate order between God and mortals." "It was customary with the pagans to deify abstract qualities, making them either gods or goddesses, as suited the gender of the name." "They sometimes deified men who had been their benefactors." "The proper notion of demons is, beings in respect of power superior to human, but inferior to that which christians comprehend under the term divine." "What are men?" says a dialogist in Lucian. The answer is, "Mortal gods. What are gods? Immortal men." In fact, immortality disembodied was almost the only distinction between them. Disembodied immortals is the idea represented by demons. "The pagans were a kind of superstitious atheists," says another writer, "who acknowledged no being that corresponds to our idea of a deity. Besides, a great part of the heathen worship was confessedly paid to ghosts of departed heroes, of conquerors, and potentates, inventors of arts, whom popular superstition, after disguising their history with fables and absurdities, had blindly deified. Now, to all such beings they themselves, as well as the Jews, assigned the name daimonia, demons." The whole superstructure of paganism is based upon the unscriptural dogma, and invention of the carnal mind, of an immortal essence in man capable of disembodied existence after death. But for this stupid fiction there would have been no daemons, nor any of the thirty thousand gods and goddesses, nor any guardian saints, or tutelary deities, of ancient and modern Greece and Rome. A scribe well instructed for the kingdom of the heavens, knows that man has no such daemon in him; and that however high he may be "in honor," if he understand not the truth, "is as the beasts that perish" (Psa. 49:12, 20). In the apocalypse diamonia occurs only once, and that in ch. 9:20; while daimon in the genitive plural is found twice; first, in ch. 16:14; and then in ch. 18:2. In ch. 9:20, it is really the neuter plural of the adjective daimonios, of, or pertaining to, daemons: "that they should not worship ta daimonia things related to daemons" -- things supposed to exist in the aerial, "between heaven and earth." In ch. 16:14, the word is different, because it refers to different things, and pertaining to a different region. Both in this text, and, in ch. 18:2, the things signified by daimones are related to earth, though, among the inhabitants of the Roman earth, they occupy a position analogous to that of the daemons of the mythical aerial between the political heaven and the peoples beneath. The habitation of these daemons is the aerial of Babylon; "the hold of every foul spirit, and cage of every unclean and hateful bird," such as popes, cardinals, bishops, priests, monks, and other officials of the state. In ch. 16:14, they are the gods of the political aerial, whose policies, or "spirits," develop remarkable and notable events. The daemons of these two texts are men of high degree -- real men of flesh and blood, in the official exercise of power; and not objects of superstitious worship. But this is not the case in ch. 9:20. Here the things related to daemons are associated with idols or images, in the phrase ta daimonia kai eidola, where the definite article ta serves both for daimonia and eidola; and very properly so, because the eidola are the visible representations of the daemonia. "The passage in which," says Mr. Tayler Lewis, in his Platonic Theology, "we find the most express and the clearest mention of daemons is in the Epinomis," which he renders thus: "Next to these, and under these, the Daemons, an aerial race, having the third seat, must we honor by prayers." They are spoken of as possessing wonderful intelligence, as feeling a deep sympathy in human affairs, as loving the good, hating the bad, and, in consequence of their middle position in the air, acting as interpreters and mediators between gods and men. To the same effect Socrates speaks of them in the Symposion, as: "For the whole demonial race is between Deity and mortals, acting as interpreters or messengers to both. Through this passes all divination, and the whole prophetical art; for Deity mingles not directly with the human race, but through these media is ever carried on the intercourse between Heaven and men, both when awake and when asleep." Such were the daimones, daemons, ta daimonia, the things pertaining daemons, of pagan antiquity. They were unsubstantial, unreal, imaginary phantasms, and fit only to make symbols of, as representative of other abominations analogous to, and as unreal as, themselves. The Greeks and Romans have never relaxed their hold upon daemonolatry or demon-worship to this day. They have only changed the character of their daemons and idols. When they became catholics they did not really cease to be pagans; they only "baptized" their daemons, and called them by other names. Jupiter, the Latins styled St. Peter, and the idol representative of "the father of the gods and men" became the image of St. Peter, "the Prince of the Apostles." Jupiter's wife, Juno, the Queen of the Universe, was converted by the Collyridion "heretics," who changed her name to "Mary, Mother of Mercy, Queen of the whole world, Mother and Spouse of God." After this fashion, they have conferred the names of fabulous saints and angels upon the gods and daemons of ancient Greece and Rome. All that the old heathens affirmed of their deities, the modern heathens of the Greek and Latin communions affirm of their martyrs, saints, and angels. The daemonology of the ancient world is the daemonology of the Apostasy, catholic and protestant. These are in fellowship with Plato, Socrates, and other pagans, in their views about "souls" and "departed spirits"; and, with all their "ripe scholarship," as they absurdly style proficiency in "the foolishness" of their collegiate "divinities" they are not one step in advance of the Platonists upon these subjects. That is, they know no more about souls and departed spirits, and their post mortem relations, than did they who had no revelation at all to guide them into truth. The Struggle, as depicted by the Medieval Mind, for the Soul of a Dying Person. (Fourteenth Century ms. in British Museum. From Twining's "Symbols and Emblems in Christian Art." Grecian Conception of the Departure of the Soul (Reproduction from Wiedemann's "The Ancient Egyptian Doctrine of Immortality.") These two illustrations show how closely the fiction of an immortal soul as taught by the Apostasy approximates to the pagan teaching of Grecian mythology. See comments on p. 124. Protestants and Catholics now believe, with all the heathen, that there is inherent in man a particle of the Divine Essence, endowed with all the attributes of deity, in like proportion as part bears to whole. This they call "soul," or "spirit," or "immortal soul;" because they imagine it is incorruptible, indestructible, deathless. They regard this fiction as the real man. The body, in their psychology, is of no account. The soul is God in man's nature -- an immortal god in mortal flesh -- both in combination constituting what the pagan poet styles "a mortal god." When what is mortal of this god dies, that which they style "the immortal soul" still lives, and becomes what their brother Lucian denominates "an immortal man;" that is, a daemon of inferior rank, nevertheless a god! Now catholics and protestants hold such gods as these in high esteem. The old mythologist had thirty thousand daemons; as -- "For thrice ten thousand wait upon our earth; Jove's everlasting guards for mortal men. Who roam the world in robes of air conceal'd." But their successors of the Laodicean church have millions. The immortal soul-daemons of all their favorities are "sainted in heaven," as soon as they are supposed "to shuffle off the mortal coil." The disembodied immortal soul-daemons of what are called men, women, children, babes, are decreed by their theologies, or daemonologies, to be saints and angels in the aerial or sky. The soul-daemon of a babe is transformed into "a little darling angel" with wings, and is symbolized by painters, as wild in their imaginations as the poets, by a head with wings peeping out of a cloud. The air, which these phantoms are supposed to inhabit, they term the "spirit-world," "the spirit-land," "the eternal world," "the world to come," "kingdom come," and so forth; for, in reference to them in the words of Hesiod, they say -- "close at hand, Immortal eyes behold us evermore" Or, as Milton expresseth it -- "Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth, Unseen, both when we sleep and when we wake." But, though they suppose all individuals of the human race have immortal souls, catholics do not worship all soul-daemons. All these they suppose to go to "purgatory"; but it is only those of the dead they delight to honor whom they exalt to the aerial between heaven and earth. They do this by a process in their ecclesiastical court called canonization. Having tried their characters in this court, and heard all the Devil's lawyer has to say against them, they are, in spite of the Devil, decreed to be adorable saints, and are translated out of purgatory beneath, to the aerial between heaven and earth! Apotheosis was the deification of the disembodied ghosts, or soul daemons, of pagan heroes and great men, by which they were exalted to the aerial between earth and heaven, and became, in their new position, adorable daemon gods, interpreters, mediators, angels or messengers, guardians and protectors of persons, families, nations, temples, and states. Now, what apotheosis was among the worshippers of Jupiter, canonization is among the worshippers of the fictitious ghost which they call "the Virgin Mother and Spouse of God." It is the next process to what they style beatification. The ghost supposed to be a blessed or beatified ghost after a scrutiny of its embodied life, in the presence of the Roman bishop and his cardinals, is proclaimed a holy one, or what these "worshippers" of the daemonials and images term "a saint," upon which the Pontiff decrees the canonization and appoints the day. On the day upon which the beatified soul daemon is installed by sovereign authority among the saint-protectors and mediators of the Laodicean aerial, the episcopal chief of the apostasy officiates in white, and his cardinals are dressed in the same. The temple dedicated to the ghost-god whom they christen "St Peter," is hung with rich tapestry, upon which the arms of the Romish High Priest, and of the prince or state requiring the deification, are embroidered in gold and silver. A great number of lights blaze around the temple, which is crowded with a swinish multitude, who await with the impatient devotion of ignorance and superstition till the new daemonial has made his public entry into the aerial paradise between earth and heaven, that they may offer up their petitions to his demon-godship without danger of being rejected. The catholic aerial is full of these deified ghosts, whose demonial images and relics are stored in the church bazaars dedicated to them, for the adoration of their besotted worshippers. All the apostles, and "the noble army of martyrs," and the popes and cardinals, and "the fathers," and Constantine, and Theodosius, and St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, and a countless host of the same sort of deities, with the Immaculate Goddess Mary, "the Queen of Heaven," at the head of them, are all supposed to be there, interceding with Mary's Son for the safety and prosperity of their catholic adorers "whose public and private vows," says Gibbon, "were addressed to their relics and images which disgraced the temples of the east." This catholic aerial is supposed to be before the throne. The reader, therefore, may easily perceive the fitness of the historian's style, in continuing: "The throne of the Almighty was darkened by a cloud of martyrs, saints, and angels, the objects of popular veneration; while the Virgin Mary was invested with the name and honors of a goddess." They are,indeed, a cloud darkening the Almighty's throne, so that no worshipper of daemonial ghosts, daemonial relics, and daemonial images, can see that throne, or find transmission for a single sigh. Such were the many new deities raised to the rank of celestial and invincible protectors of the Roman empire. The intelligent reader will know that they exist only in the intoxicated imaginations of their deluded worshippers, as do the phantoms seen by an inebriate in delirium tremens. Immortality is neither innate nor disembodied. "The Deity only hath it," Paul says; and he only bestows it upon obedient believers of the truth as it is in the Jesus he preached; and that bestowal is upon men and women bodily existing; and by clothing their bodies with incorruptibility and deathlessness after resurrection from among the dead. This is what the scripture teaches in opposition to the mythologies of the ancient and modern worlds. If "the simplicity which is in Christ" had not been departed from, there would have been no catholic and protestant daemonialism. The dogma of inherent immortality in sin's flesh would have remained with the old pagans; but the faith was departed from by those who ought to have been its earnest defenders. They abandoned the word, and substituted the vain imaginations of the heathen, which are all resolvable into the reasonings and speculations of the brain, unenlightened by revelation of any kind. They became polytheists in spite of revelation; and polytheists they will remain till Babylon falls; and the divine reprobation is stamped upon its idolatry in its destruction by the judgment to be executed by the saints. The clergy, who are in all ages the blind adherents and patrons of profitable errors, came to perceive that this polytheistic daemonialism would be more valuable to them than gold or precious stones. This stimulated them to a fraudulent multiplication of daemonial relics, such as the bones, hair, teeth, toe nails, blood, and so forth, of some fictitious saint or martyr; all of which were declared to be holy and endowed with miraculous powers for the healing of the sick, and even for the resurrection of the dead. "Without much regard for truth or probability," says Gibbon, "they invented names for skeletons, and actions for names. The fame of the apostles, and of the holy men who had imitated their virtues, was darkened by religious fiction. To the invincible band of genuine and primitive martyrs, they added myriads of imaginary heroes who had never existed, except in the fancy of crafty or credulous legendaries; and there is reason to suspect that Tours might not be the only diocese in which the bones of a malefactor were adored instead of those of a saint." But, he believes that "the progress of superstition would have been much less rapid and victorious if the faith of the people had not been assisted by the seasonable aid of visions and miracles" (termed by Paul, "all power, and signs, and wonders of falsehood") "to ascertain the authenticity and virtue of the most suspicious relics." He then gives an account of how the remains of Stephen were discovered by the appearance of Gamaliel to one Lucian, a presbyter of Jerusalem, in the reign of Theodosius II., a.d. 421-460. The ghost named Gamaliel revealed the place of Stephen's burial. When his alleged coffin came into view, the earth trembled, and an odor such as that of Paradise was smelt, which instantly cured the various diseases of seventy-three of the assistants. These fragrant daemonial relics were transported in clerical procession to a church-bazaar constructed in their honor on Mount Zion; and the minute particles of those relics, a drop of blood, or the scrapings of a bone, were acknowledged in almost every province of the Roman world to possess a divine and miraculous virtue. Augustine, bishop of Hippo, a renowned saint of the Apostasy, and the great exemplar of Mr. Elliott's "sealed ones," attests the innumerable prodigies performed in Africa by the daemonial relics of the catholic St. Stephen. In his work, the City of God, he enumerates about seventy miracles, of which three were resurrections from the dead, in the space of two years, and within the limits of his own diocese! Paul had such "saints" as this Augustine before his mind when he wrote to Timothy that in later times there would be "seducing spirits, with teachings concerning daemonials; speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared as with a hot iron." If we enlarge our view to all the dioceses and all the saints of the catholic world, it will not be easy to calculate the fables and the errors which issued from this inexhaustible source. "Whatever might be the condition of vulgar souls in the long interval between the dissolution and the resurrection of their bodies, it was evident," says Gibbon, satirically, "that the superior spirits (or deified ghosts) of the saints and martyrs did not consume that portion of their existence in silent and inglorious sleep. To the pious worshippers, it was evident that these daemonial spirits enjoyed the lively and active consciousness of their happiness, their virtues, and their powers, and that they had already secured the possession of their eternal reward. The enlargement of their intellectual faculties surpassed the measure of the human imagination, since it was proved by the (alleged) experience of their worshippers that they were capable of hearing and understanding the various petitions of their numerous votaries, who, in the same moment of time, but in the most distant parts of the world, invoked the name and assistance of Stephen or of Martin." The confidence of their suppliants was based on the supposition that the saints, by daemonial transformation were reigning with Christ, and were warmly interested in the prosperity of the catholic church; and that the individuals who imitated the examples of their faith and piety, were the peculiar and favorite objects of their most tender regard. They imagined that the daemonials viewed, with partial affection, the places which had been consecrated by their birth, their residence, their death, their burial, or the possession of their relics. In short, as the daemonials of the aerial were the mere fictions of disordered imaginations, the vagaries of the human mind in its passion and desires were ascribed to them. Thus, they were as proud, avaricious, and revengeful as their votaries, neither more nor less. As all they had to say to their worshippers was said or interpreted by lying and hypocritical priests and monks, they testified their grateful approbation of the liberality of their votaries; and hurled the sharpest bolts of punishment against those impious wretches who violated their magnificent shrines or disbelieved their supernatural power. "The imagination, which had been raised by a painful effort to the contemplation and worship of the Universal Cause, eagerly embraced such inferior objects of adoration as were more proportioned to its gross conceptions and imperfect faculties. The sublime and simple theology of the primitive christians was gradually corrupted; and the monarchy of heaven, already clouded by metaphysical subtleties, was degraded by the introduction of a popular mythology, which tended to restore the reign of polytheism." -- Gibbon. Thus, contemporary with the sounding of the fifth and sixth trumpets the latter of which did not cease to sound till a.d. 1794, the daemons of pagan Rome recovered their places in the aerial under new names; and became the patrons and protectors of the catholic apostasy. These trumpets were terrible judgments inflicted upon mankind because of their daemonolatry and idolatry. Protestantism appeared on the stage of action about the time of, or a few years before, the killing of the third of the men by the fourth angel power. But, though it protested against some catholic abominations of the grosser sort, it still clung tenaciously to the beatified existence of the daemonials in the aerial. It holds to all the absurdities which flow from the dogma of hereditary immortality, and the disembodied existence of the immortal essence after death. It erects statues in honor of its departed great, and dedicates them with clerical prayers and other ceremonies; and proclaims the dead to be alive in heaven, whence they look down with pleasure and grateful satisfaction upon the demonstrations of their admirers. Protestant daemonolatry is no more agreeable to heaven than the daemon worship of the catholic world. Behold the vengeance that desolates the protestant South, and that oppresses the protestant North with death and perplexity. These sectarian sections, being composed of all kinds of polytheists, are being plagued for reasons similar to those which caused the locust-torment, and the loosing of the four trans-Euphratean angel-powers. Erecting statues, and memorial windows in churches, in honor of "immortal souls in heaven," is worship, homage, or reverence, and they who practice such things are as much guilty of "worshipping the demonials," as are they who bow down before the image of a "saint." 12. "Idols" The All Seeing Spirit, in ch. 9:20, intimates that the "plagues" of the first and second woes were designed to abolish, or punish, the worshippng of daemonial things, and idols or images. There were many other abominations concurrent with these woes not specified; but daimonia, and eidola, things related to daemons, and idols, are especially named, because the ages contemporary with the fifth, and the interval preceding the sixth trumpet, were conspicuous for the legal establishment of the worship of daemonials, and their idolatrous symbols, called images or idols. The introduction and establishment of daemonial and idol worship as an institution of the catholic apostasy, was progressive. It began with a "voluntary humility and worshipping of angels" -- and intruding into the unseen, and a vain inflation of the mind of the flesh, in the apostolic age, as appears from Col. 2:17; and was established as early as the end of the sixth century, but more firmly by Greek and Papal authority in the eighth and ninth. In the beginning of the eighth, the idol worship was in full magnitude, and became a striking characteristic of the Laodicean Apostasy; so that with Jews, Saracens, Turkmans, Moguls, and Bible Christians, apocalyptically styled "the Golden Altar," and the "sealed," catholics and idolators were and are but different terms for the same thing. As I do not write for "the learned," who are supposed to know all about the history of the past, but whose ability to apply it rightly for apocalyptic exposition is at zero; I shall give the reader a brief account, condensed from Gibbon, of the idolatry which brought the judgments of the first and second woes upon "the men" of the Greek and Latin sections of the Roman world. At the head of certain ecclesiastical phenomena, by which the decline and fall of the Roman empire were materially affected, "We may," says he, "justly rank the Worship of Images, so fiercely disputed in the eighth and ninth centuries;" since this question of popular superstition produced the revolt of Italy from the Greek, or Sixth Dragon-Head of the empire; developed the temporal power of the popes; and the restoration of the Roman empire of the west under its last, or Eighth Head. Images or idols are symbols. They are symbols which represent the things related to daemons -- ta daimonia. Hence, when a catholic idolator looks upon the statue or image of Jupiter, which he has been taught to regard as the image of Saint Peter, that Saint Peter upon which the catholic church is built, he immediately has before "the mind of his flesh," ho nous tes sarkos autou, a disembodied ghost, with a bunch of keys. at the gates of Paradise, called Saint Peter. He bows before this image and kisses it, as the nearest approach he can make to bowing before the daemon-ghost in the aerial. It is to him not merely an image, but a representative image, or idol, before which certain attitudes are assumed, offerings presented, vows made, prayers repeated, which get no nearer heaven than the eyes, ears, and pockets of the hypocrites who minister before the symbol. The first introduction of this symbolic worship was in the veneration of the cross, and of relics. At first, the experiment of daemonial relic and image worship was made with caution and scruple. By a slow though inevitable progression the honors conferred on the original daemon were transferred to the copy, whether in picture, or in marble, wood, brass, silver or gold the votary prayed before the image of a deified ghost; and the pagan rites of genuflexion, luminaries, and incense, reappeared in the catholic church. The use, and even the worship of images, was ineradicably established before the end of the sixth century. They were fondly cherished by the warm imagination of the Greeks and Asiatics; and the Pantheon and Vatican were adorned with the emblems of the new superstition. Five hundred years after the crucifixion, a certain bishop "speaking lies in hypocrisy," pretended to have discovered a true image of Christ, which he presented to the devotion of the times. It was enthroned at Edessa in Syria, where it was adored by the catholics as the immediate creation of the divine original. The style and sentiments of a Byzantine hymn will declare how far their worship was removed from the grossest idolatry. "How can we with mortal eyes contemplate this image, whose celestial splendor the host of heaven presumes not to behold? He who dwells in heaven condescends this day to visit us by his venerable image. He who is seated on the cherubim visits us this day by a picture, which the Father has delineated with his immaculate hand, which he has formed in an ineffable manner, and which we sanctify by adoring it with fear and love." Before the end of the sixth century, these acheiropoietal images (images made without hand, were propagated in the camps and cities of the Eastern Third; they were the objects of worship, and the instruments of miracles. The fruitful precedent was speedily transferred to the Virgin Mary, and the daemonials of the catholic air; not very godlike, doubtless, being but faintly and flatly delineated by monkish artists in the last degeneracy of taste and genius. Blasphemy in the Vatican. Statue of Peter in the pontiff's robes and regalia. The toe of this image has been worn away by the kisses of deluded worshippers as described by the author of Eureka. In the beginning of the eighth century, in the full magnitude of the abuse, many of the Greeks were awakened to the conviction, that under the name of christianity they had restored the idolatry of their fathers; and they heard, with grief and impatience, from Mohammedans and Jews the incessant charge of worshipping daemonial images, which were incapable of defending themselves, much less the cities which superstition had placed under their protection. In ten years, the Saracens had subdued all the daemonially protected cities of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, by which conquest, in their opinion, the Lord of hosts had pronounced a decisive judgment between the adoration and contempt of their mute and inanimate idols. In this season of distress and dismay, when the worshippers sought death, but found it not; and desired to die, and the death fled from them (ch. 9:6) the eloquence of the monks was exercised in the defence of images. "But," says the historian, "they were now opposed by the murmurs of many simple or rational christians, who appealed to the evidence of texts, and of the primitive times, and secretly desired the reformation of the church." This reformation was attempted by Leo III., surnamed Iconoclast, who ascended the throne of the Eastern Third, a.d. 726. After ten years, he proscribed the existence, as well as the use of religious pictures; the church-bazaars of Constantinople were cleansed from idolatry; the images of Christ, "the Virgin, and the saints," were demolished, or a smooth surface of plaster was spread over the walls of the edifice. For these things, Leo the Isaurian, and his party, were styled Iconoclasts, or Image breakers; by whom under six emperors, the East and West were involved in a noisy conflict of one hundred and twenty years. They held a synod in Constantinople, a.d. 754, which, after a session of six months, decreed, that all visible symbols of Christ, except in the eucharist, were either blasphemous or heretical; that image-worship was a corruption of christianity and a renewal of paganism; that all such monuments of idolatry should be broken or erased; and that those who should refuse to deliver the objects of their private superstition were guilty of disobedience to the authority of the church and of the emperor. The execution of the imperial edict was resisted by frequent tumults in Constantinople and the provinces; the person of Leo was endangered, his officers were massacred, and the popular enthusiasm was quelled by the strongest efforts of the civil and military power. Of the Archipelago, or Holy Sea, the numerous islands were filled with images and monks; and their votaries abjured the emperor, without scruple, as the enemy of Christ, his mother, and the saints. They sallied forth in armed boats and galleys against the capital, depending upon the succor of a miracle for success. But monkish miracles were inefficient against Greek fire, which wrapped their fleet in a sheet of flame, and gave victory to the image breakers; who forthwith suppressed the monks, ever the faithful slaves of the superstition to which they owed their riches and influence; dissolved their fraternities; converted their monasteries into magazines, or barracks; and confiscated their lands, movables, and cattle, to the use of the state. With the habit and profession of monks, the public and private worship of images was rigorously proscribed; and a solemn abjuration of idolatry was exacted from the clergy of the Eastern Third of the Roman orb. The patient east abjured, with reluctance, her sacred images; while they were fondly cherished, and vigorously defended, by the Italians. Their popes were the chief advocates of "the daemonials and idols." It is agreed, that in the eighth century, their dominion was founded on rebellion, and that the rebellion was produced and justified by the heresy of the Iconoclasts. In the epistle of Pope Gregory II. to the Emperor Leo, a.d. 727, he says: "You now accuse the catholics of idolatry; and by the accusation you betray your own impiety and ignorance. To this ignorance we are compelled to adapt the grossness of our style and arguments: the first elements of holy letters are sufficient for your confusion; and were you to enter a grammar school, and avow yourself the enemy of our worship, the simple and pious children would be provoked to cast their horn books at your head." After this very episcopal salutation, he maintains a distinction between the idols of antiquity and the catholic images. The former were the fanciful representations of phantoms or daemons; while the latter are the genuine forms of Christ, his mother, and his saints, who have approved by a crowd of miracles the innocence and merit of this relative worship; and falsely asserts the perpetual use of images from the apostolic age. Then addressing Leo, he continues: "You assault us, O Tyrant! with a carnal and military hand; unarmed and naked, we can only implore the Christ, the prince of the heavenly host, that he will send unto you a devil, for the destruction of your body and the salvation of your soul. You declare with foolish arrogance, I will despatch my orders to Rome, I will break in pieces the image of St. Peter; and Gregory, like his predecessor Martin, shall be transported in chains, and in exile, to the foot of the imperial throne. Incapable as you are of defending your Roman subjects, the maritime situation of the city may perhaps expose it to your depredations; but we can remove to the distance of four and twenty stadia, to the first fortress of the Lombards, and then -- you may pursue the winds. Are you ignorant that the popes are the bond of union, the mediators of peace (daimones, in the sense of ch. 18:2), between the east and west? The eyes of the nations are fixed on our humility ("pride that apes humility"); and they revere, as a God upon earth, the apostle Saint Peter, whose image you threaten to destroy. The barbarians have submitted to the yoke of the gospel, while you alone are deaf to the voice of the shepherd. These pious barbarians are kindled into rage: they thirst to avenge the persecution of the east. Abandon your rash and fatal enterprise; reflect, tremble, and repent. If you persist, we are innocent of the blood that will be spilt in the contest; may it fall on your own head." When Leo's proscriptive edict arrived in Italy, the catholics trembled for their domestic deities; the images of Christ and the Virgin, of the angels, martyrs, and saints, were abolished in all the church-bazaars of the country; and a strong alternative was proposed to the pope, the imperial favor of the Dragon Chief as the price of compliance, or degradation and exile as the penalty of disobedience. Gregory refused to submit, and gave the signal of revolt. The Italians swore to live and die in the defence of the pope, and the holy images. They destroyed the statues of Leo, withheld the tribute of Italy, and put to an ignominious death the officials who undertook to enforce his decree. To punish these flagitious deeds, and to restore the dominion of the Dragon in Italy, Leo sent a fleet and army into the Adriatic gulf. In a hard fought day, the invaders were defeated, and the worship of images vindicated in a baptism of blood. Amidst the triumph of the idolators, their Chief Pontiff, with the consent of a synod hastily convened, pronounced a general excommunication against all who by word or deed should attack the traditions of the fathers and the images of the saints. They spared, however, the relics of the Byzantine dominion. They delayed and prevented the election of a new emperor, and exhorted the Italians not to separate from the body of the Roman monarchy: and till the imperial coronation of Charlemagne, a.d. 799, the government of Rome and Italy was administered in the name of the successors of Constantine. While the popes established in Italy their freedom and dominion, the images, the first cause of their revolt, were restored in the eastern empire. The tree of superstition had been hewn down, but the stump was still enrooted in the soil. The idols were secretly cherished by the monks and women, whose fond alliance obtained a final victory over the reason and authority of man. The ambitious empress Irene, a.d. 780, undertook the ruin of the Iconoclasts. In her restoration of the monks, a thousand images were exposed to the public veneration; and a thousand lying legends invented of their sufferings and miracles. The seventh general council was convened at Nice, a.d. 787. The legates of the Roman God, and the eastern patriarch, sat in the synod of three hundred and fifty bishops, who unanimously decreed, that the worship of images is agreeable to scripture and reason, to the fathers and council of the church. The acts of this council are still extant; a curious monument of superstition and ignorance, of falsehood and folly. The comparative merit of image worship and morality in the judgment of these bishops, is illustrated by the following anecdote. A monk had concluded a truce with the daemon of fornication on condition of interrupting his daily prayers to a picture that hung in his cell. His scruples prompted him to consult the Abbot. "Rather than abstain from adoring Christ and his Mother in their holy images, it would be better for you," said he, "to enter every brothel, and visit every prostitute in the city." The final victory of "the daemonials and idols" was achieved by a second female, the empress Theodora, who was left guardian of the empire a.d. 842. Her measures were bold and decisive. She ordered the Iconoclast patriarch to be whipped with two hundred lashes. Upon this the bishops trembled, the monks shouted, and idolatry reigned supreme. The churches of France, Germany, England, and Spain, steered a middle course between the adoration and the destruction of the idols, which they admitted into their temples, not as objects of worship, but as lively and useful memorials of faith and history. Among the barbarians of the west the worship of idols advanced with silent and insensible progress, because among them were "nourished the Woman and the Remnant of her seed" (ch. 12:14-17); but a large atonement is made for their hesitation and delay, by the gross idolatry of the ages which precede the protestant modification of Romanism, and of the countries, both in Europe and America, which are still immersed in the gloom of daemonial superstition. Thus, having become inveterate idolators "the inhabitants of the earth" were given over to their delusions, and nothing remained but to inflict upon them the sanguinary judgments of the three woes, or fifth, sixth, and seventh trumpets. As I have said, the second woe ended in a.d. 1794; and since then, the third woe has been doing its work upon the daemonialists and image worshippers of the European and American sections of the globe. Its judgments have not yet ceased; for "the rest of the men" have "not changed from the works of their hands, that they should not worship the daemonials and idols;" nor have they of the "religious world" abandoned murder, sorcery, fornication, and theft. Therefore the judgments of the third woe will not cease, until all the catholic, protestant, and sectarian systems of Daemonialism shall be destroyed; and Yahweh be alone exalted as Elohim and King over all the earth in a peaceful and glorious reign of one thousand years (ch. 5:10; 20:4, 6). II. Historical Exposition As we have seen, the two periods of five symbolic months of years pertaining to the fifth trumpet, terminated with the divesting of the Caliph-Angel of the Abyss of all temporal power, which had enabled him to "torment" and "injure," or destroy, the catholic worshippers of the daemonials and idols, for 300 years. Since that notable event, a.d. 933, their superstition and demoralization continued to intensify to the full establishment of what the moderns, in the plenitude of their own conceited wisdom, term "the dark ages." Dark enough they were; nevertheless there were more in those ages than in this, who were scripturally enlightened in "the truth as it is in Jesus." These were "the golden altar," "the altar" of sacrifice, and "the holy city trodden under foot of the Gentiles" (ch. 11:1, 2); in other words less highly figurative, "the Woman in the Wilderness" and the remnant of her seed, who keep the commandments of the Deity, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ" (ch. 12:6, 17). Parallel with the ascendancy of the Caliph-Angel of the Abyss, and far transcending the epoch of his loss of temporal power; that is, from a.d. 660 to a.d. 1200, the Woman's Seed, under the tolerating government of the Arabs, and under the cruelly persecuting rule, both of the image-worshipping and Iconoclastic Greeks, was exceedingly active in opposing the superstition of the catholics of the Eastern Third. We shall have to speak of these more particularly in the exposition of the eleventh chapter; I need therefore only say here, that, while their labors were beneficial to individuals in regard to their eternal salvation, and as a protest against iniquity, it worked no change in the public conscience. The one hundred and thirty years that intervened between the Caliph-Angel's loss of temporal power, and the loosing of the first of the four angel-powers from its Euphratean boundary, were a period of supine superstition. Indeed, not only for this period, but "from the beginning of the eighth century," says Gibbon, "to the last ages of the Byzantine empire, the sound of controversy was seldom heard; curiosity was exhausted, zeal was fatigued, and in the decrees of six councils, the articles of the catholic faith had been irrevocably defined; and the prostrate Greeks were content to fast, to pray, and to believe, in blind obedience to the patriarch and his clergy. During a long dream of superstition, the Virgin and the Saints, their visions and miracles, their relics and images, were preached by the monks and worshipped by the people, including the first ranks of civil society." The Iconoclasts somewhat rudely disturbed this dream; but the Eastern World embraced or deplored its visible deities, and the restoration of images was celebrated as the feast of orthodoxy. In this passive and unanimous state, the ecclesiastical rulers were relieved from the toil, or deprived of the pleasure of persecution. The old pagans had been superseded by the new; the Jews were silent and obscure; the disputes with the Latins were rare and remote hostilities; and the sects of Egypt and Syria enjoyed a free toleration under the shadow of the Arabian Caliphs. One enemy alone remained to disturb their spiritual slumbers; and these were the Altar-Worshippers of the apocalypse, whom they selected as the victims of diabolical tyranny: "the earth" that "helped" them (ch. 12:16) was at length exasperated to rebellion; and the exile into which they were driven, scattered over the west fresh seeds of antagonism to the Papal Power, styled "the Beast and his Image" (ch. 13). What, then, could be done with such an incorrigible generation of daemonial and idol-worshippers, but to prepare powers, which when loosed against them, should proclaim idolatry a sin punishable with slavery or death? This was the course of the Eternal Spirit, as revealed in the vision of the second woe. The Euphratean Powers were prepared powers -- powers prepared for a special mission, and therefore "angels" or messengers; and messengers are so called, because they are sent to perform, or execute missions. The mission of these Euphrateans was to make war upon idolatry with sword and gun, until the dominion of the Eastern Dragonic Third should be transferred to the Conqueror; and so, in relation to the daemonial and idol-worshipping community, to all intents and purposes, "killed." In the order, then, of things presented to our hand, I shall proceed to relate the 1. Preparation of the First Angel The loosing must not be confounded with the preparation of the four angels. If they had been "prepared for the hour and day and month and year," we might have been led to look for their contemporaneous existence during all that period; which would have made any effort at exposition a hopeless failure. Each individual power was neither prepared nor loosed for a separate and independent continuance of 391 years and 30 days. This period was the time appointed of the Spirit for the work of killing the third of the men. He could have caused them to be resolved into political extinction in a much shorter period; but this would not have been a sufficient punishment for their daemonialism. The enormity of their offense in worshipping deified immortal souls. and images of the bodies of such fictions of fancy, demanded nearly four hundred years of severe national suffering. In these centuries they were baptized in blood and calamity, and no rest was granted them day or night. The word rendered "prepared," hoi hetoimasmenoi, is the perfect participle passive, and signifies having been prepared. Thus, it may be read, "the four having-been prepared angels were loosed for the hour and day and month and year." Their preparation and loosing were for the work of this period. The time and circumstances of their preparation are not indicated; nor how long each angel was to continue loose, or unrepressed. These particulars must be learned from history, which gives us the following information with respect to the preparation of the first of the four Euphratean angel-powers. In tracing the preparation of the first angel-power, the reader must transport himself beyond the Caspian Sea, to the original seat of the Turkmans, against whom the first crusade was principally directed. One of the greatest of their princes, for whom the title of Sultan was first invented, was Mahmud the Gaznevide, who reigned in the eastern provinces of Persia from a.d. 997 to a.d. 1028. His name is still venerable in the east, where he was very successful against the idolators of Hindostan. Ten millions sterling were offered him for the preservation of the idol of Sumnat by the Brahmins; but he refused it, saying, "Never in the eyes of posterity shall Mahmud appear as a merchant of idols." The fame of his zeal reaching Baghdad, Mahmud was saluted by the Caliph with the title of Guardian of the Fortune and Faith of Mohammed. The Eastern Turkmans whom he had introduced into the heart of his Persian kingdom were a cause of grief to him in the latter years of his reign. He discerned the impolicy of his course in the replies of Ismael, a chief of the race of the Seljuk, who dwelt in the territory of Bochara. The sultan had inquired what supply of men he could furnish for military service. "If you send," replied Ismael, "one of these arrows into our camp, fifty thousand of your servants will mount on horseback." "And if that number," continued Mahmud, "should not be sufficient?" "Send this second arrow to the horde of Balik, and you will find fifty thousand more." "But," said the Gaznevide, dissembling his anxiety, "if I should stand in need of the whole force of your kindred tribes?" "Despatch my bow," was the last reply of Ismael, "and as it is circulated around, the summons will be obeyed by two hundred thousand horse." The apprehension of such formidable friendship induced him to transport the most obnoxious tribes into the heart of Chorasan, where they would be separated from their brethren by the river Oxus, and enclosed on all sides by the walls of obedient cities. But on the death of Mahmud, these Turkman shepherds became robbers; the bands of robbers were collected into an army of conquerors; as far as Ispahan and the Tigris, Persia was afflicted by their predatory inroads: and the Turkmans were not ashamed or afraid to measure their courage and numbers with the proudest sovereigns of Asia. Massoud, the son and successor of Mahmud, had neglected too long the advice of his ministers. "Your enemies," they repeatedly urged, "were in their origin a swarm of ants; they are now little snakes; and unless they be instantly crushed, they will acquire the venom and magnitude of serpents." This he essayed to do, but with ill success; for, though for a time alternating between victory and defeat, he at length lost his crown and life in battle; and in Persia, as the result of his overthrow, was founded the dynasty of the shepherd kings, a.d. 1038. The victorious Turks immediately elected Togrul Beg, the grandson of Seljuk, for their king. His ambition was equal to his valor, and both were great. He extended his dominion eastward to the Indus. In the west, he annihilated the dynasty of the Bowides, the Persian protectors of the caliphs; and by the conquest of Media he approached the confines of the Roman earth, from whence he despatched a herald to demand the tribute and obedience of the emperor of Constantinople. From the Oxus to the Euphrates the military colonies of the Turks were protected and propagated by their native princes, under the royalty of Togrul, who promoted the most deserving of the Persians and Arabians to the honors of the state; and the whole body of the Turkish nation embraced with fervor and sincerity the anti-idolatrous religion of Mohammed. Saracen Empire Under Threat The map above shows the Saracen Empire as its fullest extent (711 a.d.). Its dominance was challenged by the Seljuk Turks as they moved West. The Ottoman dynasty of Turks extended the Islamic threat to Europe itself. Inn 1453 Constantinople fell, and the Eastern Roman Empire came to an end. With the belief of the Koran, Togrul imbibed a lively reverence for the caliph, the now feeble successor of Mohammed. On the fall of the Gaznevide dynasty, the caliph named the Seljukian sultan his temporal vicegerent over the Moslem world. In the palace of Bagdad, the Commander of the Faithful still slumbered, a venerable phantom. The prince of the Bowides could no longer protect him from meaner tyrants; and the presence of a conqueror was therefore implored as a blessing. Togrul obeyed the holy summons at the head of an irresistible force. As conqueror of the east, he entered Bagdad, where, seated upon a throne by the side of the caliph's, his commision was publicly read, which declared him the temporal lieutenant of the Vicar of the Prophet. Two crowns were placed on his head; and two scymitars were girded to his side, as the symbols of a double reign over the east and west. The alliance of the Caliph, the spiritual, and of Togrul, the temporal, chief of all faithful Moslems, was cemented by the marriage of Togrul's sister with the caliph, and the caliph's daughter with Togrul. The preparation of the first angel was now complete. An anti-idolatrous power had been developed upon the old Mohammedan basis, whose dominion extended to the Euphrates, by which it was "bounded," and divided from the daemonial idol-worshipping peoples, on the west. The royal nuptials of Togrul, a.d. 1062, were soon followed by his death, a.d. 1063. Since the fall of the Caliphs, the Saracens had respected the Asiatic provinces of Rome; which, by the victories of the Greeks, had been extended to Antioch and the eastern boundaries of Armenia. Twenty-five years after the death of Basil, a.d. 1050, myriads of Togrul's horse overspread a frontier of six hundred miles from Tauris to Erzeroum, and the blood of a hundred and fifty thousand worshippers of daemonial relics, ghosts, and idols, was a grateful sacrifice by the children of the Arabian prophet. This, however, was not a loosing of the angel-power; for the arms of Togrul made no deep or lasting impression on the Greek empire. The torrent rolled away from the open country; and he retired without glory or success within his Euphratean boundary; beyond which he had found it impossible for him permanently to extend westward the territory of the Turks. 2. The Loosing of the First Angel Togrul, the Temporal Chief of the Mohammedan World, dying childless, was succeeded by his nephew Alp Arslan, "the Valiant Lion." As soon as he was seated on the throne, he determined to continue the work of extending his dominion westward at the expense of "the third of the men," whom he very correctly denounced as idolators. "He passed the Euphrates," says Gibbon, "at the head of the Turkish cavalry," a.d. 1063, "and entered Caesarea, the metropolis of Cappadocia, to which he had been attracted by the fame and wealth of the temple of St. Basil." He carried away the doors of the shrine incrusted with gold and pearls, and profaned the relics of the guardian saint. The final conquest of Armenia and Georgia, began by Togrul, was achieved by Alp Arslan, who by this success gave proof that the power of the Seljukian Turks was no longer "bound by the great river Euphrates," but emphatically "loosed." The loss of this important frontier was the news of a day; but as the idolators inhabiting the country were also heretics, the orthodox idolators of the capital were neither surprised nor displeased that they had been abandoned by their deities to the invader. The Turkish sultan and his son Malek were indefatigable in this "holy war;" their captives were compelled to promise both spiritual and temporal obedience; and to wear an iron horse-shoe, as a badge of ignominy, if they still adhered to the daemonial and idol worship of their fathers. The Turks had penetrated into the heart of Phrygia; and their numerous detachments were scattered over Asia in the security of conquest. These were separately surprised and defeated by the Greeks under their emperor Romanus Diogenes; who, in three laborious campaigns, drove the Turks beyond the Euphrates; and then undertook the recovery of Armenia. The report of this bold invasion brought Alp Arslan again into the field. He flew to the scene of action at the head of forty thousand horse. His hopes of victory were in the arrows of the Turkish cavalry. After wasting the greater part of a summer's day, fatigue compelled the Greeks and their Latin allies to retire to camp. At this crisis, the Turkish squadrons poured in a cloud of arrows. The destruction of the army followed; the emperor was taken prisoner, and the Asiatic provinces of Rome irretrievably lost. "The third of the men" inhabiting the provinces "were killed." Their sovereignty was abolished, and they became the slaves of the victorious Turks, whose dominion was advanced from Antioch to the Black Sea -- a.d. 1068-1071. Alp Arslan fell by the hand of an assassin, a.d. 1072, and was succeeded by his son Malek Shah, who reigned prosperously twenty years. He was the first Turk who bore the title of "Commander of the Faithful." By his personal merit and the extent of his empire, he was the greatest prince of his age. From the Chinese frontier, he stretched his immediate jurisdiction or feudatory sway to the west and south as far as the mountains of Georgia, the neighborhood of Constantinople, the holy city of Jerusalem, and the spicy groves of Arabia Felix. This dominion surpassed the Asiatic reign of Cyrus and the Caliphs. His hunting train consisted of forty-seven thousand horses; a stud, surpassing that doubtless, of Nimrod, the "mighty hunter before the Lord." But the greatness and union of the Seljukian angel-power expired in the person of Malek Shah, who died a.d. 1092. His vacant throne was disputed by his brother and his four sons. After a series of civil wars, the empire was divided into four dynasties -- the Persian, and those of Kerman, of Syria, and of Roum. The last invaded the Roman provinces of Asia Minor, a.d. 1074, under the lead of the valiant Soliman, who extended the bounds of the Seljukian kingdom of Roum to the Bosphorus and Hellespont; which, instead of "the great river Euphrates," became the eastern boundary of the Roman world. "Since the first conquests of the caliphs," says Gibbon, "the establishment of the Turks in Anatolia was the most deplorable loss which the church and empire had sustained." Soliman's new kingdom of the Romans, or Roum, is described as extending from the Euphrates to Constantinople, and from the Black Sea to the confines of Syria. Nice, the capital of Bithynia, was chosen for his fortress and palace; by which the throne of the Dynasty of Roum was planted one hundred miles from Constantinople. On the hard conditions of tribute and slavery, the Greek "worshippers of the daemonials and idols" might enjoy the exercise of their superstition; but their most holy temples were profaned; their priests and bishops were insulted; many thousands of their children were circumcised; and many thousand captives were devoted to the service, or the pleasures of their masters. A fleet of two hundred ships made Alexius, the Greek emperor, tremble behind the walls of his capital; and caused him to supplicate the compassion of the Latins in succor for the defence of the city of Constantine. 3. The Beginning of the 391 Years and 30 Days Such is a brief sketch of the loosing of the first, or Seljukian, angel-power, that it might be no more "bound by the great river Euphrates." The commencement of this loosing enterprise was the attempted separation of the Asiatic provinces of the Roman empire by Togrul, and perfected by Alp Arslan, a.d. 1071, by the capture of the emperor Romanus. Hence, the loosing covered a period of several years. The period of the symbolic time allotted to "the killing of the third of the men," that is, of "the hour and day and month and year," is no more to be calculated from the loosing of the first angel, than from that of the last three. The calculation must be made from the perfected preparation of the first angel power -- "having been prepared" for the work of killing. The tense of the participle passive proves this, indicating, not partial, but complete preparation before loosing. We know the day and month and year in which the work of killing, with political death, "the third of the men" was accomplished. About this there can be no mistake. The Imperial Eastern Roman Third was "killed" with the slaying of its last emperor and the capture of the capital. This event came to pass, May 29, 1453. This was the last day of the 391 years and 30 days, which long period must consequently have commenced April 29, 1062, before the death of Togrul, and after, or at, his adoption by marriage into the domestic circle of the Caliph-Angel of the Abyss. 4. The First Interval The second Euphratean angel power did not immediately follow the first. At the close of the eleventh century, and not more than forty years from the inauguration of Togrul, Constantinople and its empire were on the verge of ruin by the power of the Seljukian kingdom of Roum; and nothing less than a superhuman intervention seemed capable of averting it. To have permitted "the killing of the third of the men" "worshipping the daemonials and idols" at that epoch, would have falsified the vision. They were to be killed, not by bows and arrows, but "by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the sulphur bursting forth out of the mouths of the horses." This was a power of destruction, not in operation in the days of Soliman, the Seljukian king of Roum. An intervention, therefore, was a divine necessity, that the word of the Deity might be established. Nor was the necessity unprovided for. The daemonial superstition of the pope's barbarians of western Europe finding vent in the "crusades," though ultimately ineffective in Syria, was made the instrument of so crippling the Seljukian power, as for two hundred years to aid in upholding against it the Greek empire, which tottered on the verge of destruction. In the age of the crusades, the catholic idolators of the east and west, insisted upon their peculiar title to the Holy Land, then as now in the possession of the Turks; and that this title, which was inalienable, had been sealed by the blood of their divine saviour. On this assumption, they affirmed that it was their right and duty to rescue their inheritance from the Mohammedans, its unjust possessors, who profaned his sepulchre, and oppressed the pilgrimage of his disciples. But in this argument, which overwhelmed Asia and depopulated Europe, there were fatal errors; first, in the assumption that they, these worshippers of daemonial ghosts, relics, and images, were christians; and secondly, that it is the right and duty of christians to possess themselves of the Holy Land. It is indeed true, that the true believers have an inalienable title to the land; and that that title was sealed by the blood of Christ, when by his death he brought the Abrahamic covenant into force; so that the land becomes their inheritance; but it is not true, that it is the right and duty of these heirs to become crusaders to wrest their inheritance from the enemy. They are heirs, indeed; but they are also "joint-heirs with Christ," and have therefore no right, and consequently it is not their duty, to take possession of it in his absence, even if they were able. He must first return from the far country in which he has resided so long; and return, too, with power and authority from the Father-Deity to take possession jointly with his fellow-heirs of their inalienable inheritance. But what a monster evil the idolators of "Christendom" brought upon themselves by the false assumptions of the argument, by which they sought to justify their mad enterprises for the deliverance of the land and sepulchre of Christ. Their ignorance and fanaticism were made the means of the destruction of myriads. In the council of Clermont, Urban II. proclaimed a plenary indulgence to those who should enlist under the banner of the cross; the absolution of all their sins, and a full receipt for all that might be due of canonical penance. At the voice of the pope, the robber, the incendiary, the homicide, arose by thousands to redeem their souls, by repeating on the Moslems the same deeds they had practised against their papal brethren; and the terms of atonement were eagerly embraced by offenders of every rank and denomination. They set out for Asia, a.d. 1096, early in the spring, under Peter the Hermit and Walter the Pennyless, a herd of nearly three hundred thousand of the most stupid and savage refuse of the people, who mingled with their devotion to the cross a brutal licence of rapine, prostitution, and drunkenness; while their genuine leaders were a goose and a goat, who were carried in the front, and "to whom," says Gibbon, "these worthy christians ascribed an infusion of the divine spirit." In their march along the Rhine, they pillaged and massacred many thousands of the Jews, numbers of whom, with their families and wealth, perished in the rivers or the flames. As they advanced their numbers increased; but in Hungary and Asia Minor, unrelenting vengeance retaliated upon them the punishment of their crimes. In the plain of Nice, they were overwhelmed by the Turkish arrows. Of these first crusaders 300,000 had already perished before a single city was taken from the kingdom of Roum; and a pyramid of bones became the memorial of their defeat. This herd of savages was followed by the chivalry of the nations. Their principal force consisted in cavalry; and when mustered in the plains of Bithynia, the knights and their martial attendants on horseback amounted to one hundred thousand fighting men, completely armed with the helmet and coat of mail. Besides these, the promiscuous crowd was lost in its own disorder. The Greeks were astonished at the overwhelming inundation; and the Princess Anne, the daughter of the Emperor Alexius, exclaims, "That Europe was loosened from its foundations, and hurled against Asia." Provoked by the loss of his capital, Soliman collected the Turkman hordes against them to the number of three hundred and sixty thousand horse. But the battle went against him, and he found it necessary to evacuate the kingdom of Roum. The crusaders at length obtained possession of Antioch, but with the annihilation of their splendid cavalry; and the loss of many thousands of every rank by famine, sickness, and desertion. In the month of May, a.d. 1099, the relics of their mighty host laid siege to Jerusalem, which they entered July 15. The capture of the city was followed by the foundation of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Latins now reigned beyond the Euphrates; and the four cities of Hems, Hamah, Damascus, and Aleppo, were the only relics of the Mohammedan conquests. The Latin Kingdom was conquered by Saladin, a.d. 1187; but the expulsion of the Latins from Syria was delayed till a.d. 1295; when the Sultan of Egypt, at the head of sixty thousand horse, and a hundred and forty thousand foot, closed the age of the crusades with the capture of Acre, the expulsion of these forces from the Holy Land, and the death or slavery of sixty thousand worshippers of the daemonials and idols of the catholic aerial. 5. Preparation of the Second Angel The rise and progress of the Ottomans are founded on a previous knowledge of the great eruption of the Moguls and Tartars; whose rapid conquests may be compared with the primitive convulsions of nature which have agitated and altered the surface of the globe. The spacious highlands between China, Siberia, and the Caspian sea, the ancient seats of the Huns and Turks, were occupied in the twelfth century by many pastoral tribes, of the same descent and similar manners, which were united and led to conquest by the formidable Zingis Khan. His private name was Temugin, but from a naked prophet, who claimed to be able to ascend to heaven on a white horse, he condescended to accept the title of Zingis, the Most Great; and a divine right to the conquest and dominion of the earth. In a general diet, he was solemnly proclaimed Great Khan, or Emperor of the Moguls and Tartars. War was his delight, and his maxim was that peace should never be granted unless to a vanquished or suppliant enemy. His religious system was that of pure theism and perfect toleration. He was in direct opposition to the impious fools of Europe, who believed nonsense and defended it by cruelty. His first and only article of faith was the existence of one God, the author of all good, who fills by his presence the heavens and earth, which he has created by his power. Such a potentate was an appropriate scourge for the idolators of the Roman world. In the west, his empire touched the dominions of the Sultan of Carizme, who reigned from the Persian Gulph to the borders of India and Turkestan. It was his wish to establish a friendly and commerical intercourse with the most powerful of the Moslem princes. But he was not met in the same spirit. In the vast plains north of the Jaxartes, 700,000 Moguls and Tartars under Zingis and his four sons, encountered the Sultan with 400,000. In the first battle, 160,000 Carizmians were slain. The Sultan retired into his fortified cities. But, aided by his Chinese engineers, and informed of the secret of gunpowder, they were unable to withstand the attacks of Zingis. From the Caspian to the Indus, his Moguls ruined a tract of many hundred miles, which was adorned with the habitations and labors of mankind; so that five centuries have not been sufficient to repair the ravages of four years. Zingis died in the fulness of years, a.d. 1227, leaving his empire to successors of his own race and family. In the sixty-eight years of the first four of these, the Moguls subdued almost all Asia, and a large portion of Europe. Thus, a power was prepared eastward of the Euphrates, which, a.d. 1258, under Holagou, the grandson of Zingis, by the storm and capture of Bagdad, and the territory of its jurisdiction, extended to the Euphrates; the east of which the stream of Mogul hostility was driven back from the south by the Mamelucs of Egypt. Hence, it was a prepared power "bounded by the great river Euphrates." 6. Loosing of the Second Angel When the Mogul-power suppressed the Caliphate, which had been held by the race of Abbas above five hundred years, it spread beyond the Tigris and Euphrates, pillaged Aleppo and Damascus, and threatened to join the Franks in the deliverance of Jerusalem. Egypt would have been lost had it been only defended by natives. But the Mamelucs were now established there; and they were equal in valor and superior in discipline to the Moguls. These were heading in the wrong direction. Their mission was towards Constantinople and the west. It was necessary, therefore, that they should be turned thitherward. Hence, the Mamelucs were stirred up to withstand them by their invasion of the south. They met them in many a well fought field, and at length drove them to the east of the Euphrates. But they could not be "bound" there, for the time had come for the second angel to be loosed. The Mogul inundation overflowed with resistless violence the Kingdom of Armenia, which was possessed by the daemonial worshippers of idols; and then crossing westward into the upper region watered by "the great river Euphrates," they flooded the Kingdom of Anatolia, which was possessed by the Turkish sultans of Iconium. These opposed some resistance to the Mogul arms, till Azzadin sought refuge in Constantinople, and his feeble successors, the last of the Seljukian dynasty, were finally extirpated by the Mogul Khans of Persia, a.d. 1272. No sooner had Octai, one of the four sons of Zingis subverted the northern empire of China, than he resolved to visit with his arms the most remote countries of the west. Fifteen hundred thousand Moguls and Tartars were inscribed on the military roll. A third of these were intrusted to his nephew, Batou, the son of Tuli, who reigned over his father's conquests to the north of the Caspian; and such was the ardor of his innumerable cavalry, that in less than six years they had measured a line of ninety degress of longitude, a fourth of the circumference of the globe. They ravaged with equal fury the countries they hoped to possess, and those they were hastening to leave. They reduced the Russians to a servitude of two hundred years; made a deadly, though transient, inroad into the heart of catholic Poland; and penetrated as far as the borders of Germany. They approached the shores of the Baltic; and in the battle of Lignitz, filled nine sacks with the right ears of the slain. From this extreme point of their march westward, they invaded Hungary with five hundred thousand horse. The whole country north of the Danube was lost in a day, and depopulated in a summer. Of all the cities and fortresses of daemonial and idol worshipping Hungary, three alone survived this Mogul-Tartar invasion. The Latin world was darkened by this cloud of second-angel hostility to the idolators of the west; and the remote nations of the Baltic and the ocean trembled at the noise of their approach. Since the invasion of the Arabs in the eighth century, Europe had never been exposed to a similar calamity. The Roman high priest of the daemonials attempted to appease and convert to his idolatry these invincible pagans by a mission of Franciscan and Dominican friars; but "His Holiness" was astonished by the reply of the Khan, that the sons of God and of Zingis were invested with a divine power to subdue and extirpate the nations; and that the pope would be involved in the universal destruction unless he visited in person, and as a suppliant, the royal horde. This was apocalyptically true; they were indeed so invested. Their mission was divine. They were one of the four Euphratean angel-powers, "invested with divine power" against the catholic world. Vengeance upon this "Sodom and Egypt, spiritually so called" (ch. 11:8) -- was heaven's decree; and the invincible sons of Zingis were the ministers of its wrath. In this shipwreck of nations, Constantinople and the Greek empire, then divided between the Greeks and Latins, escaped surprisingly. Had the sons of Zingis undertaken the siege of the capital, it must have yielded to the common fate. In a second expedition, death arrested the Khan in full march to attack Constantinople. His brother Borga, however, was diverted from the Byzantine war which he had carried into Bulgaria and Thrace by an alliance with the Mamelukes against the Moguls of Persia. In the reign of Michael Palaeologus, the Seljukian sultan, who had fled to Constantinople, was released from his exile among the Greeks. The first terror of the arms of the Monguls secured, rather than disturbed, the peace of the Roman Asia. The Seljukian sultans of Iconium, were a barrier, which, when overthrown exposed the defencelessness of the Greeks. Holagou, the grandson of Zingis, threatened to march to Constantinople at the head of 400,000 men. The news of this spread terror among the idolators of Nice, where the doleful chant of a procession in honor of some of their saints, "from the fury of the Tartars, good Lord, deliver us!" scattered the belief of an actual assault and massacre; and it was some hours before the city could be delivered from this imaginary foe. But the ambition of Holagou and his successors was diverted by war with the Moslems of Bagdad and Syria, which disposed them to unite with the Greeks and Franks. They offered the Seljukian kingdom of Anatolia to an Armenian vassal, whose emirs all confessed the supremacy of the Mogul Khans of Persia. The death of Cazan, one of the greatest and most accomplished princes of the house of Zingis, terminated their salutary control a.d. 1304; and the decline of the Moguls gave free scope to the rise and progress of the Ottoman empire, or Fourth Euphratean Angel-power. 7. The Second Interval On the dissolution of the Carizmian power by the Moguls, some of the Turkman chiefs engaged in the service of Aladdin, the sultan of Iconium; and among these were the obscure fathers of the Ottoman line. They had formerly pitched their tents near the southern banks of the Oxus. At the head of a Carizmian force, Soliman Shah was drowned in the passage of the Euphrates. His son Orthogrul became a soldier of Aladdin. He was the father of Othman. The Seljukian dynasty was no more; and the decline of the Mogul Khans soon freed him from the control of a superior. He was situate on the verge of the Greek empire, which he first invaded, a.d. 1299. The conquest of Prusa by his son Orchan, a.d. 1326, may be dated as the true aera of the Ottoman power. The Seljukian coin was changed for the name and impression of the new dynasty. Orchan subdued all Bithynia to the shores of the Bosphorus and Hellespont; and a.d. 1341, crossed for the first time into Europe, where they established themselves in the province of Thrace, a.d. 1353. They soon subdued the whole province from the Hellespont to Mount Haemus, and the verge of Constantinople. Adrianople was now their capital; and at this fatal hour, the Greeks were surrounded, both in Asia and Europe, by the arms of the same hostile monarchy. But Amurath I. postponed for a while this easy conquest; and turned his arms against the Sclavonians between the Danube and the Adriatic. His son Bajazet I, subdued his brother emirs from the Euphrates to the Danube, and after the conquest of Iconium, the ancient kingdom of the Seljukians was revived in the Ottoman dynasty. He now accepted the patent of sultan from the caliphs who served in Egypt under the yoke of the Mamelukes: a last and frivolous homage yielded by force to opinion, by the Turkish conquerors to the Abbassides, and the successors of the Arabian prophet. Bajazet's ambition was inflamed by the obligation of deserving the august title; and he turned his arms against Hungary, the perpetual theatre of Turkish victories and defeats. In the battle of Nicopolis, he defeated a confederate army of 100,000 catholic idol worshippers, who had proudly boasted that if the sky should fall, they could uphold it on their lances. In the pride of victory, Bajazet threatened to subdue Germany and Italy; and that he would feed his horse with the bushel of oats on the altar of St. Peter at Rome. The Roman world was now contracted to a corner of Thrace, between the Propontis and the Black Sea, about fifty miles in length and thirty in breadth. At length the ambition of the victorious sultan pointed to the conquest of Constantinople, which he claimed as his own. A refusal to surrender caused it to be more closely pressed by war and famine; and the savage would have devoured his prey, if, in the fatal moment, he had not been overthrown by another savage stronger than himself, a.d. 1402; an event that delayed the fall of Constantinople about fifty years. 8. Preparation of the Third Angel The conquest and monarchy of the world was the first object of the ambition of Timour or Tamerlane. He was born forty miles to the south of Samarcand in the fruitful territory of Cash, of which his fathers were the hereditary chiefs, as well as of a myriad or toman of ten thousand horse. In the twenty-fifth year of his age he stood forth as the deliverer of his country: but not being duly supported, he retreated from the hills of Samarcand to the desert with only sixty horsemen. They were overtaken by a thousand foes, whom he repulsed with incredible slaughter, and they were forced to exclaim, "Timour is a wonderful man; fortune and the divine favour are with him." At the age of thirty-four, after various adventures, he was invested in a general diet with imperial command over Zagatai and the East, a dominion five hundred miles in length and breadth. But this did not satisfy him; for Timour aspired to the dominion of the world; and before his death, Zagatai was only one of the twenty-seven crowns which he had placed upon his head. In the year 1380, he invaded the kingdoms of Persia; and the whole course of the Tigris and Euphrates, from the mouth to the sources of these rivers, was reduced to his obedience. He extended his conquests eastward into Hindostan, and made his triumphal entry into Delhi, the capital. While on the banks of the Ganges he was informed of the revolt of the catholics in Georgia and Anatolia, and of the ambitious designs of Bajazet, the Ottoman sultan. He was now sixty-three years of age, and unimpaired by his innumerable fatigues, which had subjected the greatest part of Asia to his laws. The Mogul and Ottoman conquests now touched each other in the neighbourhood of Erzeroum and the Euphrates, by which Timour's dominion was "bound." Of these ambitious monarchs, Timour was impatient of an equal, and Bajazet was ignorant of a superior. A quarrel was soon excited between them that could only be composed by blood. "Dost thou not know," said Timour to the sultan, "that the greatest part of Asia is subject to our arms and laws? That our invincible forces extend from one sea to the other? That the potentates of the earth form a line before our gate? And that we have compelled fortune herself to watch over the prosperity of our empire? What is the foundation of thine insolence and folly? Thou hast fought some battles in the woods of Anatolia; contemptible trophies! Thou hast obtained some victories over the christians of Europe; thy sword was blessed by the apostle of God; and thy obedience to the precept of the Koran, in waging war against the infidels, is the sole consideration that prevents us from destroying thy country, the frontier and bulwark of the Moslem world. Be wise in time; reflect; repent, and avert the thunder of our vengeance, which is yet suspended over thy head. Thou art no more than a pismire; why wilt thou seek to provoke the elephants? Alas! they will trample thee under their feet." Bajazet was deeply stung, and in his replies poured forth the indignation of his soul. His rage was ungovernable. He reproached Timour as the thief and rebel of the desert, and declared that he had never triumphed unless by his own perfidy and the vices of his foe. "Thine armies are innumerable;" said he, "be they so: but what are the arrows of the flying Tartar against the scymitar and battle-axes of my firm and invincible janizaries? I will guard the princes that have implored my protection: seek them in my tents. The cities of Arzingan and Erzeroum are mine; and unless the tribute be duly paid, I will demand the arrears under the walls of Tauris and Sultania." After enjoying some tranquil months of Samarcand, Timour proclaimed a new expedition of seven years into the western countries of Asia. Complaints and menaces fermented two years before the final explosion; and though the political quarrel was embittered by private and personal resentment, yet in his first expedition, Timour was satisfied with the destruction of Sebaste, a strong city on the borders of Anatolia; and revenged the indiscretion of Bajazet on the garrison of four thousand Armenians, who were buried alive for their fidelity. As a mussulman, he seemed to respect the pious occupation of the Ottoman, who was still engaged in the blockade of Constantinople; and after this salutary lesson, the Mogul conqueror checked his pursuit, and turned aside to the invasion of Syria and Egypt, a.d. 1400. Thus was prepared the third Euphratean angel-power. The time was fast approaching for it to be loosed, that it might superadd its vengeance upon "the worshippers of the daemonials and idols" of the catholic church, and prevent the fall of their eastern empire by the arms of the Ottoman sultan, until the full expiration of the 391 years and 30 days. 9. The Loosing of the Third Angel The sack of Aleppo and Damascus signalized the loosing of the Timour-Mogul power from its Euphratean boundary. In a peaceful conference with a doctor of Mohammedan law, he said: "You see me here a poor, lame, decrepit mortal. Yet by my arm has the Almighty been pleased to subdue the kingdoms of Iran, Touran, and the Indies. I am not a man of blood; and God is my witness, that in all my wars I have never been the aggressor, and that my enemies have always been the authors of their own calamities." During this peaceful utterance, the streets of Aleppo streamed with blood, and re-echoed with the cries of mothers and children, and the shrieks of violated females; and the cruelty of his Moguls was enforced by the peremptory command of producing an adequate number of heads, which, according to his custom, were curiously piled in columns and pyramids. After a period of seven centuries, Damascus was reduced to ashes; and in his return to the Euphrates, he delivered Aleppo to the flames. Bagdad shared the same fate, and upon its ruins he erected a pyramid of ninety thousand heads. He again visited Georgia; and proclaimed his resolution of marching against the Ottoman emperor, whom he styled, the Kaissar of Roum the Caesar of the Romans. Conscious of the importance of the war he collected his forces from every province -- "myriads of myriads" -- variously estimated at from 800,000 to 1,600,000 men. During the diversion of the Mogul arms into Syria, Bajazet had two years to collect his "myriads" for the encounter. John, doubtless, in vision, saw the myriads of myriads, which the Moguls counted by tomans of ten thousand each, collected by these rival destroyers of mankind for the slaughter upon the field of Angora; but without "the fire hyacinth and sulphur," which had not been introduced into Asiatic field warfare. Timour himself fixes the Ottoman army at 400,000 men, horse and foot. He invested Angora, a.d. 1402, in the heart of the Ottoman kingdom, which became the scene of a memorable battle, which has immortalized the glory of Timour and the shame of Bajazet. For this signal victory, the Mogul was indebted to the rapid evolutions of his numerous "cavalry," skillfully worked by a master hand. The genius of Bajazet sank under a stronger ascendant, and the unfaithfulness of his troops. The fleetest of his horses could not place him in safety. He was pursued, and taken; and after his capture, and the defeat of the Ottoman powers, the kingdom of Anatolia submitted to Timour. The Mogul squadrons were only stopped by the waves of the Propontis. Smyrna was taken by storm; and the trunkless heads of the daemonial worshippers were launched from the engines of assault. From the Irtish and Volga to the Persian gulph, and from the Ganges to Damascus and the Archipelago, Asia was in the hands of Timour; his armies were invincible, and his ambition boundless. He touched the utmost verge of the land; but an insuperable, though narrow, sea rolled between the two continents of Europe and Asia; "and the lord of so many tomans, or 'myriads,' of horse, was not master of a single galley." He invested Soliman, the son of Bajazet, with the kingdom of Thrace. The Greek emperor paid the same tribute to him as he had to Bajazet, and took an oath of allegiance to "the king of the world." The Ottoman sultan died in captivity beyond the Euphrates. The Ottoman power seemed ruined, or fatally and finally merged in the third angel-power. It was in abeyance beyond "the great river Euphrates," where it was "bound" with but little prospect of being revived. Before it could reappear, the power of the Great Mogul must be broken, or rolled back within its natural limits. When released from this restraint, it would be no longer "bound by the great river Euphrates" but loosed for the work that still remained to be done in "the hour, day, month, and year." Timour returned in triumph to Samarcand, where for two months he ceased to exercise his power. He considered these the only happy period of his life. But he was soon awakened to the career of government and war. But the angel of death met him on his march to China and terminated his career in the seventieth year of his age, a.d. 1405 and thirty-five years after ascending the throne of Zagatai. The race of Timour was perpetuated in the Great Moguls of Delhi, whose empire has been dissolved, and their kingdoms possessed by the "Empress of India" and "Queen" of the remote islands of the northern sea -- Victoria Guelph. 10. Third Interval, in which the Preparation of the Fourth Angel is Completed It would be well for the fame of fortunate destroyers of their species, if they would remember and be admonished by the remark of Ahab to Benhadad, king of Syria: "Let not him that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he that putteth it off." The sultan Bajazet belonged to the numerous class of military vain boasters, which is not, while we write, even now extinct. We have seen, that a.d. 1402, Constantinople and the Greek empire, were on the verge of destruction at his hand. The really formidable chivalry of the west had intervened to save them, but had been broken in the battle of Nicopolis. The Ottoman sultan saw no power to make him afraid; and supposing himself master of the situation, he thus addressed the Dragon-emperor: "Our invincible scymitar has reduced almost all Asia (Minor) and many and large countries in Europe ("the Rest of the Men") excepting only the city of Constantinople; resign that city, or tremble for thyself and thine unhappy people." The killing of "the third of the men" thus seemed imminent full half a century before the prophetic period of 391 years and 30 days had elapsed that fixed it. But the eyes of the Eternal Spirit are always upon the truth. He never slumbers nor sleeps; so that all the boastful Bajazets in creation can neither expedite nor delay what he has decreed. As we have seen, he prepared the Timour-Mongul angel power to make vain the boasts of the Ottoman sultan, and to delay the catastrophe of the vision until the expiration of the period of the time appointed. Thus, "the savage," as Gibbon says, "was forced to relinquish his prey by a stronger savage than himself; and by the victory of Tamerlane the fall of Constantinople was delayed about fifty years." Bajazet died in captivity, a.d. 1403; but the Ottoman Dynasty did not expire with him. "The massy trunk was bent to the ground, but no sooner did the hurricane pass away, than it again rose with fresh vigor and more lively vegetation." When Timour, in every sense, had evacuated Anatolia, he left the cities without a palace, a treasure, or a king. The open country was overspread with hordes of shepherds and robbers of Tartar and Turkman origin; the recent conquests of Bajazet were restored to the emirs; and his five sons seemed eager, by their civil discord, to consume the remnant of their patrimony. There was as yet no fourth angel-power to be loosed. Its preparation, so far as it had progressed during the second interval, was interrupted, with little prospect of renewal and completion. But the events of the ensuing eighteen years changed the face of affairs. This was a period of preparation, in which was completed the development of the fourth Euphratean angel-power. It was a period of war between the sons of Bajazet, which resulted in the destruction of them all, except Mohammed I. This prince, before his father's captivity, had been intrusted with the government of Amasia, and the Turkish frontier. In his rapid career, Timour overlooked this obscure angle of Anatolia, "bounded by" Georgia on the east, the Greek kingdom of Trebisond on the west, and the "great river Euphrates" on the southwest; where Mohammed, without provoking the conqueror, maintained his silent independence. He obtained Anatolia by treaty, and Thrace by arms. The last eight years of his reign were employed in banishing the vices of civil discord, and restoring on a firmer basis the fabric of the Ottoman monarchy. He was succeeded by his son Amurath II., who, by the aid of the Genoese, captured Adrianople, and so reunited the Ottoman empire, a.d. 1421. 11. Loosing of the Fourth Angel The conquest of Adrianople was followed in the ensuing spring, a.d. 1422, by the siege of Constantinople. The religious merit of subduing the City of the Caesars, attracted from Asia a crowd of volunteers, who aspired to the crown of martyrdom. It was besieged over two months by 200,000 Turks; and "old resources of defence," says Gibbon, "were opposed to the new engines of attck" -- "the horses in the vision." The credulity of "the worshippers of the daemonials and idols" beheld the Virgin Mary, in a violet garment walking on the rampart, and animating their courage. But their time for political death ("when Ephraim offended in Baal, he died," i.e. a political death) had not quite arrived. It was not to their Daemonial Mother of God, nor to their own courage, that they owed their deliverance, at this time; but to the recall of Amurath by a domestic revolt, which demanded the presence of his arms for its suppression. When this was extinguished, he led his janizaries to new conquests in Europe and Asia; a diversion which obtained for the Byzantine empire a servile and precarious respite of thirty years. Mohammed II (1430-1481) overthrew the eastern Roman Empire when he successfully captured Constantinople. The strongly defended city resisted attack for some time, but on May 29 a general assault was made, and the city was carried by storm. Turkish artillery (as required by The Apocalypse as expounded by J. Thomas) played an important part in the overthrow. The illustration on p. 159 is an artist's impression of the attack. He has correctly given prominence to the artillery used by the Turks, referred to in Scripture and also by Gibbon in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 12. "The Fire, the Smoke, and the Sulphur" "By these three," says John, "was the third of the men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the sulphur, which burst forth out of the mouths of" the horses. The time had now arrived, which John saw illustrated in the vision by what Gibbon styles, "the new engines of attack." When John was in Patmos, there was no name in any of the languages of mankind by which to designate these "new engines." They were represented to John by appearances and effects; as Mexicans might have done to Montezuma when they first saw a horse with a rider and a gun trailing after him, suddenly wheeling into position with their tails towards him, and fire, smoke, and sulphur bursting forth from the gun's mouth, with a roaring noise, and hurling a ball into their midst. John was taught to call these new engines "horses;" a name analogous to what would be afterwards bestowed upon them when they should come into use-horse-artillery. I would here add to what I have already said on the breasts of the riders. These had "fiery hyacinthine, and sulphurous breasts." Not only do the "breasts" represent the breast-works upon which exploding horses would be mounted, but also the breasts of the riders themselves, before which would be planted carbines, which when fired by cavalry in line, would give a fiery hyacinthine, and sulphurous smell and appearance to their breasts. An artist's impression of the taking of Constantinople, 1453. Gibbon's history gives prominence to the artillery used by the Turks, and The Apocalypse states: "By these was the third part (eastern division of the Roman Empire) killed (politically), by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths" (Rev. 9:18). Having narrated the failure of Amurath's attack upon Constantinople, Mr. Gibbon calls the attention of the reader to the invention of gunpowder and balls as "the powers" by which "the new engines" became effective. He remarks, that the only hope of salvation for the Greek empire, and the adjacent kingdoms, would have been some more powerful weapon, some discovery in the art of war, that would give them a decisive superiority over their Turkish foes. Such a weapon was in their hands, and such a discovery had been made at this critical period of their fate. The chemists of China or Europe, had found that a mixture of saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal, produces, with a spark of fire, a tremendous explosion or bursting forth -- ekporeusis. It was soon observed that if the expansive force were compressed in a strong tube, a ball of stone or iron "heads," might be expelled with irresistible and destructive velocity. The precise aera of the invention and application of gunpowder is involved in doubtful traditions and equivocal language; yet we may clearly discern, that it was known before the middle of the fourteeth century; and that before the end of the same, the use of artillery in battles and sieges, by sea and land, was familiar to several states. But it was found impossible to circumscribe the secret within the pale of catholic idolatry; it was disclosed to the Turks by the treachery of apostates to Moslemism and the selfish policy of rivals; and the sultans of the fourth angel-power had the sense to adopt, and wealth to reward, the talents of a catholic engineer. It was probably by the hands of the Genoese that Amurath's cannon was cast and directed at the siege of Constantinople. The first attempt was indeed unsuccessful; it could not be otherwise, the time appointed for "killing the third" being yet distant upwards of thirty years. 13. The Killing of the Third Amurath II was succeeded, a.d. 1451, by his son Mohammed II., styled by Gibbon, "the Great Destroyer." His passions were at once furious and inexorable. In the palace, as in the field, a torrent of blood was spilt on the slightest provocation. Constantinople has sealed his glory, and placed him among "the basest of men" whom the Eternal Spirit "sets up" to fufil his will. Under his command the Ottoman "myriads" were always more numerous than their enemies; "yet," says the historian, "their progress was bounded by the Euphrates and the Adriatic." Mohammed II., though the proudest of men, could stoop from ambition to the basest arts of dissimulation and deceit. Peace was on his lips, while war was in his heart; and he incessantly sighed for the possession of Constantinople. The indiscretion of the Greeks afforded the first pretence of a fatal rupture. Instead of laboring to be forgotten, they continually annoyed him with their demands, until patience being exhausted, his vizir addressed them in the following strain: "Ye foolish and miserable Romans, we know your devices; and ye are ignorant of your own danger. The scrupulous Amurath is no more; his throne is occupied by a young conqueror, whom no laws can bind and no obstacles can resist; and, if you escape from his hands, give praise to the divine clemency which yet delays the chastisement of your sins. Why do you seek to affright us by vain and indirect menaces? Release the fugitive, Orchan; crown him sultan of Romania; call the Hungarians from beyond the Danube; arm against us the nations of the west; and be assured that you will only provoke and precipitate your ruin." Hostile in mind, Mohammed proceeded to build a fortress on the Bosphorus, about five miles from the city, to command the strait and close the Black Sea. This was, in effect, commencing the siege. He began this work a.d. 1452, which he pressed and directed with indefatigable ardor, and quickening the diligence of the workmen with the eye of a despot, whose smile was the hope of fortune, and his frown the messenger of death. In vain did Constantine, the last of the Greek emperors of the Dragon power, try to divert him from the work. The sultan was implacable, and listened with joy to all complaints, which only afforded him occasions for treachery and violence. At length the gates of the city were closed, and a last message forwarded to the sultan: "Since neither oaths, nor treaty, nor submission, can secure peace, pursue," said the emperor, "your impious warfare. My trust is in God alone: if it should please him to mollify your heart, I shall rejoice in the happy change; if he delivers the city into your hands. I submit without a murmur to his holy will. But, until the Judge of the earth shall pronounce between us, it is my duty to live and die in the defence of my people." Constantine did not know, and there was no one able to show him, that the Judge of the earth had recorded the decree against him over thirteen hundred and fifty years, and that that decree was death to "the third" of which he was the imperial head. The sultan's answer was hostile and decisive; and, having finished his fortress, he prepared to besiege the city in the ensuing spring of a.d. 1453. The conquest of the City of Caesar seemed to haunt him day and night. About the second watch, he started from his bed, and commanded the instant attendance of his prime vizir. This secret friend of the idolators, surnamed Gabour Ortachi, or foster-brother of the infidels, alarmed at the summons, hastened with a guilty conscience to the palace with a slight tribute of gold. "It is not my wish," said the sultan, "to resume my gifts, but rather to heap and multiply them upon thy head. In my turn, I ask a present far more valuable and important -- Constantinople." As soon as the vizir had recovered from his surprise, "The same God," said he, "who has already given thee so large a portion of the Roman empire, will not deny the remnant and the capital. His providence and thy power assure thy success; and myself, with the rest of thy faithful slaves, will sacrifice our lives and fortunes." "Lala," continued the Sultan, "do you see this pillow? All the night, in my agitation, I have pulled it on one side and on the other; I have risen from my bed; again have I lain down, yet sleep has not visited these weary eyes. Beware of the gold and silver of the Romans. In arms we are superior; and, with the aid of God, and the prayers of the prophet, we shall speedily become masters of Constantinople." Mohammed's Fortress over the Bosphorus. Built in July 1452, it played a decisive part in the conquest of Constantinople. This brought political "death" to the Eastern Third. His artillery surpassed whatever had yet appeared in the world. "Am I," said the sultan to a founder of cannon, who had deserted from the Greeks, "able to cast a cannon capable of throwing a ball or stone of sufficient size to batter the walls of Constantinople?" "I am not ignorant of their strength," replied the artist; "but were they more solid than those of Babylon, I could oppose an engine of superior power: the position and management of that engine must be left to your engineers." At the end of three months, Urban produced a piece of brass ordnance of stupendous and almost incredible magnitude, capable of projecting a stone bullet weighing six hundred pounds. The explosion was felt or heard in a circuit of a hundred furlongs; the ball, by the force of gunpowder -- "the fire, the smoke, and the sulphur" -- was driven above a mile; and, on the spot where it fell, it buried itself a fathom deep in the ground. For the conveyance of this destructive engine, a carriage-frame of thirty waggons, linked together, was drawn by a team of sixty oxen; two hundred men on both sides were stationed to poise or support the rolling weight; two hundred and fifty pioneers marched before to smooth the way and repair the bridges; and near two months were employed in transporting it one hundred and fifty miles. In the beginning of the spring, the Turkish vanguard swept the towns and villages as far as the gates of the capital: all who submitted were spared and protected; whatever presumed to resist was exterminated with fire and sword. The whole mass of the Turkish "myriads" are estimated at two hundred and fifty-eight thousand. Constantinople was still peopled with more than a hundred thousand inhabitants; but, of all these, only four thousand nine hundred and seventy were found able and willing to defend the city. These were increased by two thousand foreigners, under John Justiniani, a Genoese. These seven or eight thousand soldiers were all that could be mustered to defend Constantinople, a city of thirteen or sixteen miles circuit, against the fourth angel-power, to which Europe and Asia were open, but closed against the Greeks. The siege began April 6, a.d. 1453, and lasted fifty-three days. The Propontis and the Harbor protected it on two sides, while the land side was defended by a double wall, and a ditch one hundred feet deep and four English miles in length. Against this the fourth angel-power directed its chief attack. "The incessant volleys of lances and arrows were accompanied," says Gibbon, "with the smoke, and the sound, and the fire, of musketry and cannon. Their small arms discharged at the same time either five or even ten, balls of lead, of the size of a walnut; and, according to the closeness of the ranks and the force of the powder, several breastplates and bodies were transpierced by the same shot." This is quite apocalyptic. John, in vision, saw this described by Gibbon. John also speaks of "the smoke," and "the fire," and "the sound," or "bursting forth" roaringly; for "the horses had heads of lions, and out of their mouths burst forth fire, and smoke, and sulphur." Gibbon likewise calls our attention to the breasts of them who handled "the horses of the vision," or "sat upon them," in speaking of the musketry as well as the cannon. He connects the smoke, and the fire, and the sound, with their breasts, in speaking of their musketry; for it need not be proved that, in a line of musketry discharging its pieces, a breastline or work of small arms is presented to the observer, which, in activity, are, as John says, "fiery, and hyacinthine, and sulphurous breasts." Gibbon also calls our attention to the apocalyptic "heads." "They had heads" says John, "and with them they do hurt." A dull, stupid, round-headed fellow is often styled a bullet-head. The Spirit termed balls and bullets in the vision "heads," hissing like serpents from the lion-mouths of the pieces; and as Gibbon says, illustratively of the "hurt," that "they transpierced breastplates and bodies" of the Daemonial Virgin's troops, the idolatrous Greeks. Lastly, Gibbon is particular to explain to us what John terms "their powers." Projectiles were not new things at this siege; but the powers by which they were made to hurt were new. He says it was by "the force of the powder" that the bulletheads, or shot, transpierced the bodies. Here were two powers or forces -- the force of the powder, and the force of the shot; the one the propelling power, and the other the striking power; and both these powers, Gibbon says, were in the musketry and the cannon; and John says the same thing in other words: -- "their powers," says he, "are in their mouths and in their tails; for their tails are like to serpents, having heads, and with them (the heads) they do hurt." The serpent hiss of these heads is distinctly heard while they are whizzing through the air in their course from the mouth of the piece to their destination. Now, if Gibbon was so particular to narrate these details to his contemporaries, who were as familiar with them in every day practice as himself, need we wonder that the Spirit should give them great prominence in the vision? Gibbon could no more dispense with his dissertation on gunpowder, musketry, and cannon, in treating of the fall of the Roman empire, than could the Spirit in representing the same event. And for this reason: what Gibbon styles "the new engines of attack" were the instrumental cause of that fall; and it was the indispensable duty of an accurate and faithful historian to dwell upon the remarkable fact, that Constantinople was the chief city taken, and the Roman the first empire subverted by the smoke, and the sound, and the fire, and the balls, of musketry and cannon. This testimony of history is in harmony with the testimony of the Omniscient Spirit, who, "by his servant John," says: "By these three was the third of the men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the sulphur, which burst forth of out their mouths." If it had not been for this "force of powder," "the third of the men" would not have been killed at the time appointed -- the end of "the hour and day and month and year." By the aid of "the powers" of powder and shot, it took the Ottoman angel-power fifty-three days to take the city and overthrow the empire, so as to execute the work in the appointed limit; but without these it would have taken a much longer time, or have resulted in failure as before. The third of the men, then, was emphatically "killed" by gunpowder -- "by the fire, by the smoke, and by the sulphur bursting forth out of" the cannons' "mouths;" for, without this "force of powder," shot, cannon, and musketry, would have been perfectly harmless. Such is the strict accord between prophecy and history. Hence, "the vision is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure." "The great cannon of Mohammed," says Gibbon, "has been separately noticed -- an important and visible object in the history of the times; but that enormous engine was flanked by two fellows almost of equal magnitude. The long order of the Turkish artillery was pointed against the walls; fourteen batteries thundered at once on the most accessible places; and of one of these it is ambiguously expressed, that it was mounted with one hundred and fifty guns, or that it discharged one hundred and fifty bullets, or "heads." The great cannon could only be loaded and fired seven times in one day and at length burst, destroying several engaged in working it. The resistance of the idolators was so obstinate and surprising that the perserverance of Mohammed was fatigued, and he began to meditate a retreat. The reduction of the city appeared to be hopeless, unless a double attack could be made from the harbor as well as from the land. This he at length effected. He constructed a floating battery, upon which he planted one of his largest cannon. The fire of the Greeks was controlled and silenced by the superior fire of the Turks; and, after a siege of forty days, the fate of Constantinople could no longer be averted. The fortifications, which had stood for ages against hostile violence, were dismantled on all sides by the Ottoman cannon; many breaches were opened, and four towers had been levelled with the ground. The crisis for the assault had arrived; but, wishing to spare the blood of his soldiers, he invited the worshippers of canonized immortal souls and idols to submission with circumcision or tribute; but if they preferred still to resist, death was to be their fate. It was heaven's decree that they should be killed. The emperor of the Greeks determined to abide the last extremities of war. Several days were employed in preparations for the assault; but singularly enough, Mohammed did not trust himself to appoint the day when it should be made. He had recourse to his favorite science of astrology, that it might fix for him the day. He thus surrendered himself to "fate;" and that fate had already decreed that the Roman Empire of the East should fall at the end of 391 years and 30 days. However he might arrive at the conclusion by the principles of his science, I am not astrologer enough to tell. I doubt not but that, as in the case of Saul and the witch of Endor, the Spirit made use of his infatuation to determine him to do at the right moment what he had, over thirteen centuries before, marked out for the fourth Euphratean angelpower to accomplish. Be this as it may, Mohammed's astrology ordered him to make the assault on the twenty-ninth of May, as the fortunate and fatal day. All was depression and abject superstition within the city. The "celestial image of the Virgin" was paraded in solemn procession; but their "divine patroness" was deaf to their entreaties. This, their daemonialism and idolatry, had brought upon them the calamities they endured. The shouts of the myriads without their walls proclaimed the truth by which they were condemned -- "God is God! there is but one God!" and this one God it was, who, by all the four Euphratean angelpowers, was vindicating his Unity against the more than pagan multitude of the gods and goddesses of the catholic aerial. The morning of May 29, 1453, at length dawned. The myriads pressed forward to the breach, while the Ottoman artillery thundered from all sides; and the camp and city, the Greeks and the Turks, were involved in a cloud of smoke, which could only be dispelled by the deliverance or destruction of the Roman empire. The Turks were a hundred times more numerous than the idolators. The double walls were reduced by cannon to a heap of ruins; and their valiant emperor had fallen in the fight, and lay buried under a mountain of the slain. After his death, resistance and order vanished; the Greeks fled towards the city; and, in the heat of the pursuit, two thousand worshippers of the Virgin fell beneath the scymitars of the victorious Turks; and, thenceforth Constantinople became the capital of the Fourth Euphratean angel power. Thus was killed the Eastern Roman Third of the men, at the full end of "the hour, and day, and month and year," or 391 years and 30 days from the perfected preparation of the first angel-power. The Ottoman Turks extended their conquests into Europe bringing political "death" to the Eastern Roman Empire.