Eureka - An Exposition of the Apocalypse - John Thomas
Chapter 13 11.
Second Section of the Seventh Seal Act II. -- the Sixth Trumpet or Second Woe Western Part Apoc. 11:1-13 Summary The woman in the wilderness and the remnant of her seed (ch. 12:6, 14, 17) as the nave of the Deity, the altar, and the worshippers therein, measured by John. These (as the Holy City, and posterior to their measurement), are trodden under foot forty and two months by the Lion-Mouth Gentiles of the unmeasured outer court; that is, until the Ancient of days come (Dan. 7:21, 22). But, "the Earth helps the Woman" from the time of her flight into the wilderness of the Two Wings of the Great Eagle, where she is protected for a time, times, and a half a time. To "the Earth," as the two witnesses against the woman's persecutors, power is given to maintain their testimony in sackcloth 1260 days. In the exercise of their mission, they smite the earth with all plagues as often as they will. At length the Lion-Mouthed Beast of the sea (ch. 13:7) effects their subjugation and political extinction. But after three days and a half they stand upon their feet again, and ascend to the heaven in sight of their enemies. At this crisis, an earthquake overthrows a tenth of the city Babylon the Great: titular distinctions within the sphere of the convulsion are abolished, and many of those who rejoice in them slain: the rest are terror-stricken; and give glory to the Deity of the heaven (Apoc. 11:1-14). During the testifying, or prophesying of the witnesses the Ten Horns, the Two-horned Beast of the earth and the Image of the wounded sixth head of the best, appear upon the arena. TIME OF EVENTS From a.d. 312 to a.d. 1794, a period of 1482 years. Third Section of the Seventh Seal Act III -- the Seventh Trumpet or Third Woe: Judicially Affecting Both East and West Apoc. 11:15-19 Summary The events aforesaid being accomplished, the Seventh Trumpet begins to sound; and ends in the casting down by the angel of the Bow of the thrones, and the setting up of the kingdom of the Deity; who, as the measured nave, altar, and worshippers therein, commences His reign. The casting down is preceded by the revelation of divine wrath in a time of international belligerency; and by the resurrection of the saints; who, as the nave and containing Ark of the Covenant, are manifested in the heaven; and with lightnings, voices, thunderings, earthquake, and hail, destroy the corrupters of the nations -- Verse 15-19. TIME OF EVENTS From a.d. 1794 to a.d. 1905, a period of 111 years. See Tabular Analysis, Vol. 2, pp. 116-118 Translation Apoc. 11 1. And there was given to me a reed like a rod: and the angel stood saying, Rise up, and measure the nave of the Deity, find the altar, and those worshipping in it. 2. And the court which is outside of the nave cast away out, and measure it not, for it has been given to the nations; and the Holy City they shall trample forty two months. 3. And I will give to my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and sixty days, having been clothed with sackcloths. 4. These are the two olive trees, and two lightstands, which have stood before the god of the earth. 5. And if any will to injure them, fire bursts forth out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any will to injure them, in this way must he be put to death. 6. These have power to shut the heaven, that rain may not fall in their days of the prophecy: and they have power over the waters to turn them into blood, and to smite the earth with every plague, as often as they may have willed. 7. And when they may have finished their testimony, the beast ascending out of the abyss will make war with them, and overcome them, and put them to death. 8. And their corpses shall lie upon the breadth of the Great City styled spiritually Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. 9. And they shall see their corpses among the peoples, and tribes, and tongues, and nations three days and a half, and they shall not suffer their corpses to be put into tombs. 10. And they who dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and be exultant: and they shall send gifts to one another; because these two prophets tormented them who dwell upon the earth. 11. And after the three days and a half, spirit of life from the Deity broke in upon them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon those who beheld them. 12. And they heard a great voice from the heaven, saying to them, "Ascend hither!" And they ascended into the heaven in the cloud, and their enemies beheld them. 13. And in that hour there was a great earthquake, and the tenth of the city fell, and there were destroyed in the earthquake seven thousand names of men: and the rest were terrified, and gave glory to the Deity of the heaven. 14. The second woe has passed; behold the third woe comes immediately. The Third Woe 15. And the seventh angel sounded, and there were great voices in the heaven, saying, the kingdoms of the world have become our Lord's and his Christ's, and he shall reign for the aions of the aions. 16. And the twenty and four elders sitting upon their thrones in the presence of the Deity, fell upon their faces, and did homage to the Deity, saying, We give thanks to thee, O Lord, the almighty Deity, who is and who was and who art the coming one, because thou hast assumed thy great power, and reignest. 18. And the nations were made angry, and thy wrath came; and the time of the dead to be judged, and to give the reward to thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, even to those who fear thy name, to the small and to the great; and to destroy those who corrupt the earth. 19. And the nave of the Deity was opened in the heaven, and the ark of his covenant was seen in his nave: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunders, and earthquake, and great hail. Exposition 1. Zechariah's Symbolism In the fourth chapter of Zechariah there is a very remarkable symbolic prophecy concerning Zerubbabel and the "great mountain." In this there is contained a hidden mystery -- wisdom concealed, which the prophet confessed he did not understand. The exposition of the eleventh chapter of the apocalypse cannot be satisfactorily unfolded irrespective of Zechariah's prophecy; for this portion of John's is a symbolical revelation of the mystery therein contained. We shall therefore briefly look into what the spirit said to Zechariah about Zerubbabel. First, then, the prophet was symbolically awakened by an angel out of a symbolic sleep, to show that what was about to be revealed would in its consummation, be manifested after he should rise up from among the dead. Being thus figuratively introduced, into the resurrection state, he saw therein a group of symbols representative of post resurrectional Spirit-manifestation. The one group consisted of a golden lightstand with a hollow ball, or bowl, upon the top, from which projected seven tubes and burners. On each side of this was an olive tree, one on the right, and the other on the left; and from a branch on each tree a golden pipe connected with the bowl. When the prophet beheld the lightstand and the two trees, he inquired of the angel what it meant; or what was the solution of the mystery? But, instead of a definition of the symbols with an analytic exposition of the truth, he was told in very general terms, that the group represented the Spirit in manifestation, prepared to level the Great Mountain, and to establish the Head Stone triumphantly -- verses 2-7. This "great mountain" is the mountain out of which the Head Stone is cut without hand (Dan. 2:45); and symbolizes "the kingdom of men" as existing at the epoch of its final overthrow, when "the kingdoms of this world become the Lord's and his Christ's." "Before Zerubbabel" it becomes "a plain." The Head Stone is the Spirit in olive-tree and lightstand manifestation, and surnamed Zerubbabel -- scattered in Babylon. "They shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel those seven, which are the Eyes of Yahweh" (v. 10). This is the "one stone of seven eyes" surnamed Zerubbabel. It is the Spirit head Stone so named, constituted, not of one individual only, but of a number of individuals, "which no man can number," with one individual at the head of them, named Jesus the Anointed. But, Zechariah in looking more narrowly at the symbolic group discerned two remarkable olive branches, one upon each of the olive trees; and he saw besides two golden pipes, one proceeding from each olive branch to the golden globe of the lightstand. He perceived, that the pipes were for the conveyance of the golden colored oil from the olive branches into the globe of the lightstands, that it might be combusted in the seven burners at the end of the seven tubes projected from the top of the golden globe. But he did not see into the truth or meaning of the mystery of the two olive branches, and the two golden pipes; he therefore asked the angel what they represented? He gave him, however, very scanty information. He simply replied, "these are the two Sons of Oil standing before the Lord of all the earth" (ver. 14). 2. The "One Body" the Golden Lightbearer of the Spirit Such was the symbolic scene beheld by Zechariah after his symbolic resurrection -- two antagonistic powers; the one the Spirit, the other, the mountain-dominion of the world. But, had we no more light thrown upon the subject than granted to the prophet, the truth symbolized would be as inscrutable to us as it was to him. But, happily for them who are "the servants of the Deity sealed in their foreheads" with his seal, the hidden mystery hath been apostolically and apocalyptically revealed. The apostles, whose teaching consisted largely of "the revelation of the mystery hid from the aions and generations," have supplied that which the angel carefully concealed from Zechariah. They have taught us, that the Golden Lightbearer of the Spirit is the "One Body," of which the Lord Jesus is the head, or globular reservoir of the oil, anointed with the holy oil of truth; for "the spirit is the truth," says John. This is the stem, and the bowl, and the seven tubes branching from the top, and the seven burners, and the two pipes; through which flows the spirit-oil of the truth, that it may "shine before men." This one body, or lightbearer, is "the light of the world" (Matt. 5:14-16). It has been set up in the world to "give light unto all that are in the house," that they may see the good works of them who are burners of the spirit-oil, and "glorify the Father who is in heaven." It is through them that the Spirit operates in enlightening mankind, in "opening their eyes, and turning them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan (which is ignorance) to the Deity;" and in "pulling down of strongholds, and casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the Deity's knowledge, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of the Christ" (Acts 26:18; 2 Cor. 10:5). In doing this, the seven Eyes of the Deity shine like lamps of fire from the burners of the lightstand. In apostolic times, they stood before the principalities and powers in the heavenlies making known to these rulers of the earth the manifold wisdom of the Deity, according to an exposition of the aions which he made concerning Jesus their anointed Lord (Eph. 3:10, 11). Without this lightbearing body, the world in all the ages and generations from apostolic times until now, would have been in lightless outer darkness. The One Body has been the golden seven branched lightbearer in all the gloomy period of the times of the Gentiles. "Their testimony," which is their light, is not only enlightening to the understanding of the ignorant, but it is tormenting to the adherents and advocates of the traditions and sophistries of the catholic and protestant apostasy (Apoc. 11:7, 10). It vexes and annoys them; and especially when the eyes of the common people are sufficiently opened, if not to see the truth so as to be saved by it, at least to discern the imposition practised by those who would be their spiritual guides; but whose guidance they reject as mere quackery, and certain to precipitate all who trust it into the ditch. This effect of the light-burning stirs the gods of the earth up to inextinguishable wrath and causes them to make war upon the lightburners and to try to put out their light by breaking their lightbearing body to pieces -- 11:7; 13:7. But "the earth helps the Woman," who is indirectly nourished and cherished by the democratic and revolutionary adversaries of arbitrary power in church and state. These are her helpers, though not members of her body; and owe their political existence to the leavening influence of the divine principles she irradiates. They are her fire and sword by which her enemies are killed and devoured (Psa. 17:13; Apoc. 11:5, 6): and, but for whose chivalrous devotion to what they style "the rights of man," she could in no wise have withstood for ages the exterminating efforts of the enemies whom her testimony hath tormented and provoked. The apostles have also taught us that the Spirit-Lightstand, or one light-bearing body, is constituted of two classes of mankind, which are fitly represented by Two Olive Trees; the one, "a wild olive tree," and the other, "a good olive tree" (Rom. 11:17, 24). The former, we are taught in this chapter, represents the non-Israelitish portion of mankind; while the latter is representative of the twelve tribes of Israel. In the Zechariah-group of symbols, these two olive trees are united to the light-bearing body by the two golden pipes extending from a branch of either tree. This intermediate union of the two trees is allegorical of the union of Israelites and Gentiles in one body through Jesus Christ. In the apostolic allegory, the union of the two classes is represented by grafting branches taken from the wild olive tree among the branches of the good olive tree, whose root and fatness supply wholesome nourishment to the gratis. In other words, the engrafting is done by "the word of truth," which is therefore styled "the engrafted word received with meekness, which is able to save the soul" (James 1:21). This word received with meekness by wild-olive men, makes them intelligent believers of "the things concerning the kingdom of the Deity, and of the name of Jesus Christ;" and, by causing them to be immersed into the Christ-Name, they become members of the one body. By adoption, or engraftment, through Christ Jesus, they become good olive-men; and being "cut out" of the wild olive in all "the times of the Gentiles," during which blindness afflicts Israel, they supply the place of the Jewish branches broken off because of unbelief. This transfer of branches from the wild to the cultivated olive is the reason of there being two olive trees in the symbolic group. In the first few years of the apostolic era, there had been no breaking off of branches from the good olive tree; and no grafting in of wild olive branches in their place. The engrafted word was preached and received by Israelites alone; for, until Peter was taught to "call no man common or unclean" (Acts 10:28), the gospel was not preached to the Gentiles; so that the one body consisted only of believing and immersed Jews. But, when it was found experimentally that Israelites were fast becoming deaf and blind to the word, it was propounded to the Gentiles, from among whom a rich fulness has been separated. As faith decayed in Israel it grew vigorously among the Gentiles. The natural branches of the good olive became sapless; and were broken off with violence, when the Little Horn of the Goat received a host against the daily because of transgression, and cast down the truth, in its Mosaic representation, to the ground (Dan. 8:9-12). a.d. 70. But the One Body is destined to flourish in two states. The Zechariah-symbolic group represents it in the state inaugurated by the resurrection. John saw it in this state, as "a Son of Man in the midst of Seven Lightstands," invested with all the attributes of omnipotence (Apoc. 1:12-16). Being in the midst of the seven, he occupies the same relation to the light-irradiating ecclesias that the seven tubes of Zechariah's group do to the golden bowl, and the seven horns do to the Lamb (ch. 5:6). The whole group of John and Zechariah is symbolical of the Omniscient and Omnipotent Spirit in post resurrectional corporeal manifestation -- the "One Body" perfected and glorified in all its members. But, before the One Body thus symbolized can stand in the presence of the nations to "enlighten the earth with his glory" (ch. 18:1), it must pre-exist in all "the times of the Gentiles;" that is, in the interval between the breaking off of the natural branches of the good olive tree, say from a.d. 70, to "the time of the dead when they should be judged, and a reward given to the prophets and saints" (ch. 11:18). This state of being, Paul styles, "the present evil world;" we term it commonly, "this world," and "the present state," in contrast with "the future state," or "the other world," or "the world to come." Seeing, then, that the One Body, a great multitudinous unity, Jesus and his Brethren, is related to these two states, it is interesting to know -- I. What position it occupies in respect to the nations of the earth? II. What its mission while so placed? and, III. How long is that position to be held? A correct answer to these questions will furnish us with the solution of the mystery contained in the eleventh chapter of the Apocalypse. I. Position of the One Body in the Present State Zechariah does not aid us here. He was briefly informed, that the two olive branches emptying the golden oil through the two golden pipes into the bowl, were "the two Sons of Oil standing before the Lord of all the earth." They represented Sons generated by the Golden Oil, or "word of truth" -- the "unction from the Holy One, which teacheth of all things, and is the truth" (1 John 2:20, 27). They stand before the Lord, al-adon, or before the Ruler of all the earth. True; but who is the ruler here referred to? Is it the Spirit-King, Yahweh Tz'vaoth, Isaiah saw? (ch. 6:1, 5). Is it he exclusively, or is there a truth concealed, indicating some other ruler as well? The answer to this question must be deferred until we come to the exposition of Apoc. 11:4. We shall proceed now to the consideration of the first verse of this chapter. 1. "Rise Up!" In this we find John in a like situation with Zechariah. They are both in the presence of an angel, and both asleep. That John was lying down asleep appears from a voice saying to him, egeirai, awake, or rise up! When John had the vision of the One Body, as related in the first chapter, he "fell at his feet as dead," and from this symbolic death was restored again by the Spirit who spoke to him; so, in this eleventh chapter, being in the same presence, namely, of the Rainbowed Angel, of whom he says, "the Angel stood," he was prostrate in symbolic death, from which he was commanded, not by the angel, but by the voice of the power that developes the angel, to "Awake," or "Rise up." The angel is placed there, very much to the perplexity of the grammarians and commentators, who have proposed to abolish him from the text altogether, as an inconvenient superfluity -- as the representative of the One Body in the post resurrectional period; as indicated by the symbolical resurrection of John, who, when awake or risen up, sees him standing -- "the Angel stood." But why was John made the subject of a symbolic resurrection when he was about to transact business having regard to the position and mission of the One Body in the times antecedent to "the time of the dead?" The answer is, because the business he had to transact would ultimate in the resurrection of the One Body, of which, in its awaking or rising up, he was the dramatic representative. The literal resurrection of the dead saints developes the angel he saw standing when he opened his eyes to see. The things revealed in this eleventh chapter ultimate, as any one may see, in the resurrection of the saints, and the establishment of their kingdom. They are the Spirit's dead men, and they arise as his dead body. This is a grand consummation in regard to them. They now "dwell in dust," where they are fast asleep; but they shall "awake and sing," as the climax of their position and mission in this present evil world (Isa. 26:19; Dan. 12:2). This is a notable feature in all prophetic oracles, namely, the primary statement of the end to be established as the result of, or consequent upon, the details immediately to follow. There is another striking illustration of this in the fifteenth verse of this chapter. Here, the end resulting from the finished judgments of the seventh trumpet is summarily stated before the details of the trumpet are specified. A neglect of this peculiarity would lead the reader to suppose that "the kingdoms of this world became the Lord's" at the first blast of the seventh trumpet. This, however, would be a great mistake; for subsequent specifications show that such a notable and world-astounding result is not to be expected unti the sounding is about to cease. But, of this apocalyptic characteristic I need adduce no further examples, for it must be obvious enough to all. 2. "A Reed like to a Rod" This being so, I proceed further to notice, that the power commanding John to rise up, gave to him "a reed like to a rod." The use he was ordered to make of it shows that it was a measuring reed. "Rise up," said the voice of the Spirit, "and measure the nave of the Deity, and the altar, and them that worship therein." When we consider the things to be measured, it is clear that the reed must be a rule of faith, a rule of practice, a rule of time, or all of these; not a material rule, such as a builder would use. It was "a reed like unto a rhabdos." In writing to the saints in Corinth. Paul says to them: "What will ye? Shall I come unto you with a rhabdos or with love, and a spirit of meekness?" (1 Cor. 4:21). This shows that a rhabdos is something different from love and meekness in expression. The use of it in this chapter of the apocalypse is evidently representative of the same idea as in Paul's inquiry. The scope of the prophecy shows this; for the two olive trees are to "prophesy 1260 days, having been clothed in sackcloths" (ver. 4, 3); and to be overcome and denied a burial (ver. 7, 9). This unhappy fate was a rhabdos -- a severe infliction. Hence, the measuring reed was like to severe infliction. But, how long? The answer to this question is the reed -- 1260 days. The reed then was a rule of time, indicating a period of severe trial; and therefore "like to a rod;" and upon the principle of loving chastisement -- "whom the Lord loves he chastens, and scourgeth every son whom he receives" (Heb. 12:6). It is to be noted here, that John, and not the angel, is the measurer. The measuring, therefore, is different from the measuring of chapter 21:15. In this place, it is one of the seven angels of the vials, the seventh, that is the measurer. John has a reed, and this angel has a reed; but the reeds differ in this, that John's is "like a rod," and the angel's is "a golden reed." Being different reeds or rules, they are used for different kinds of measurements. The reed like a rod measures the nave still in connection with altar-worship; while the angelic golden reed measures "the great city, the holy Jerusalem," in which there is neither nave nor altar. There was great symbolic decorum in appointing John to be the measurer, in giving the reed like a rod to him. "Rise up and measure!" was the voice of the Spirit. The measuring is here connected with the rising up; in other words, John's symbolical resurrection was the limit of the measuring; at all events, of his measuring; for, where his correctional mensuration ends, there the angelic measuring by the golden rule begins. 3. The Altar The altar in the text is the altar of sacrifice. Had it been the altar of incense it would have been specified, as in ch. 8:3, "the golden altar before the throne." The altar John measured was the altar under which the saints lie, who are slain for the word of the Deity, as in ch. 6:9. In this place, the symbolic souls are represented as "crying with a loud voice, saying, How long?" But the measurement of this was not revealed. They were told that it was "for a little season;" but the number of days contained in this short period was not measured off for their information. Not so, however, in John's measuring. He gives in symbolic days the period of altar-worshipping; that is, the period during which the saints would be liable to death at the hand of their enemies because of their testimony. In all "their days of the prophecy they were an afflicted people. As the Spirit had foretold in Dan. 7:21, the Little Horn with Eyes and a Mouth of blasphemy was to make war upon the saints, and to prevail against them till the Ancient of Days came. The saints being in Christ Jesus, the altar, they "worship therein," and are "partakers with the altar" in altar-sufferings; in other words, "they are partakers of Christ's sufferings; that when his glory shall be revealed, they may be also partakers of that, and be glad with exceeding joy" (1 Pet. 4:13; 5:1). But, was this altar to be deluged with the blood of victims in all the period elapsing from a.d. 70 to the coming of the Ancient of Days? John's measuring answers this question in the negative. The worshippers in the altar were to be slain, and to rise again, and to ascend to power, and to strike terror into their enemies; and, though not free from tribulation because of the word, their sufferings are not represented as unto death as aforetime. They are prevailed against till the Ancient of Days comes, but not under the same Sanguinary conditions. 4. All not of the "One Body" Excommunicate John's measuring was restricted to the One Body, the mystical body of Christ, the saints. He was expressly commanded to excommunicate all the Gentiles not of the One Body. "The Court," said the Spirit-Voice, "that is outside of the nave, ekbale exo, cast away out, and measure it not;" and the reason given for this excommunication is, "because it hath been given to the nations." Hence, the apocalyptic court is the Court of the Gentiles; and the antitype of the Court of the Gentiles under the Mosaic constitution. It may be remarked here, that in Solomon's building there wore three courts; first, the outmost court of all, into which the Gentiles might enter; next, the Court of Israel, for native Israelites, if clean according to the law, otherwise admission was denied even to them. Between these two courts, there was a "middle wall of partition," upon which were notices forbidding Gentiles to pass beyond it on pain of death; and, third, the Court of the Priests, where the brazen altar of burnt-offerings, and the brazen laver for washings, stood, and where the priests and Levites exercised their ministry. Israelites, who offered sacrifices, might bring their victims to the inner part of this court, but could not pass a certain separation which divided it; they withdrew as soon as they had delivered their sacrifices and offerings to the priest, or had made their confession, with laying their hand upon the head of the victim, if it were a sin-offering. Beyond the Court of the Priests was the temple proper, subdivided within into the Holy Place, and the Most Holy Place, or Nave. These two Holies were divided from each other by the Veil or curtain. In the Holy Place were the golden altar of incense, the show-bread table, and the seven-branched lightstand, in whose seven burners was consumed the light-giving golden oil of olives. Into this place, the priests, if purified by blood and water, and invested with the holy garments, might enter at all times; but were forbidden to enter into the Most Holy beyond the Veil. Into this, the Aaronic High Priest alone could enter, but not at all times, nor without blood, on pain of death. When within the nave, he stood, as "the angel stood" (ch. 11:1), before the throne of Yahweh, whose power dwelt in a cloud between the Cherubim, made of the Olive Tree, and overlaid with pure gold; and above the propitiatory, or mercy-seat, or coverlid of the ark, styled the Ark of the Covenant, because it was a chest containing the stone tables of the law, cut and engraved in heaven, and delivered thence by angels to Moses on the mount. Within were also contained the pot of manna, the bread that came down from heaven, and Aaron's dead rod that budded into life and bore fruit. Such was "the House made with hands" -- an interesting fabric of the Mosaic parable foreshadowing certain "things of the kingdom of the Deity, and of the name of Jesus Christ." As we have seen elsewhere, these temple arrangements have been incorporated into the structure of the Apocalypse. The text before us appropriates the apocalyptic outside court to the Gentiles. "The middle wall of partition" having been broken down, by nailing the threatening handwriting of ordinances to the cross (Eph. 2:14; Col. 2:14); no Court of Israel is introduced into the apocalypse. Israelites and Gentiles not of the One Body, are constituents simply of the unmeasured court. Their position in relation to the Nave and the Golden Altar, and the Altar of Sacrifice, is that of excommunicate outsiders. In the aggregate, they are "the court outside of the nave cast away out, and not measured." They are therefore, without remission of sins, and consequent right to the tree of life; they cannot offer acceptable prayer and praise to the Deity; nor have they any intercessor within the veil. Their court is wholly occupied by Daniel's Fourth Beast. There is not a foot of its area which is not so occupied; so that there is room within its limits for no other beast; for this beast is resolved, apocalyptically, into the dragon, the beast of the sea, the beast of the earth, the image of the beast, and the scarlet colored beast and its rider. In other words, the Unmeasured Court is Christendom, so called, in its civil and ecclesiastical constitution -- "Babylon the Great." The altar, which in the first verse includes the Court of the Priests, and the Holy place, because the constituents of the altar are constituents also of the court and the holy, is surrounded by the Court of the Gentiles; that is to say, the One Body in the present evil world, is a pilgrim and a sojourner in the midst of its enemies. It is surrounded on every side by the children of "the Great Harlot;" whose ecclesiastical institutions are apocalyptically labelled, "the Mother of Harlots, and of all the Abominations of the Earth." This ecclesiastical family of adulteresses belong especially to "the beast that ascendeth out of the abyss, and makes war upon the saints, and overcomes, and kills them" (ver. 7; 13:7). They are the defiling women of ch. 14:4; with whom "the Virgins," or Altar-worshippers, have nothing to do, except to prophesy against them, and to torment them with their testimony. In this Court of the Gentiles, "the spirituals of the wickedness in their high places" are rampant revellers in tradition and blasphemy. Their court is illustrated by one great "Name of Blasphemy" (ch. 13:1); which towers in pride and arrogance ("its look more stout than his fellows" (Dan. 7:20) above all the other blasphemous "Names and Denominations," of which it is so "full" as scarcely to afford space for novelty in this department of iniquity, transgression, and sin (ch. 17:3). These Names and Denominations of Blasphemy fill up the Court; a fact expressed in the text quoted, by the words, "a scarlet-colored beast, full of the Names of Blasphemy." Those of them in alliance with the civil powers of the court, are styled "Harlots;" these can be counted upon the fingers; as, the Church of England and Ireland, the Church of Scotland, the Lutheran Church, the Calvinian Church of Switzerland, and the Gallican Church. These are the Harlots, who have sold themselves for gain to work the will of them who keep them. They are ecclesiastical incorporations of "all that is in the world, the" sanctimonious "lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life;" and therefore "not of the Father" (1 John 2:16). Their diversities are but the diversities of mere human speculation and views of expediency. The same substratum of blasphemy and scripture-nullifying tradition, pervades them all. They teach nothing aright; for their divinities and theologies, are the mere fleshly thinkings of the natural man. Though their spirituals claim to be "ministers of the gospel," and "ambassadors of Jesus Christ," and "successors of the apostles;" their claims are stamped spurious and their high pretensions ignored, by the command given to John not to measure their court, but to "cast it away out." They are a denounced apostasy, as far removed from the One Body as the east from the west. Ministers of the gospel indeed! How can men minister that of which they are profoundly ignorant in letter and spirit. If ministers of anything, it is of "the wisdom from beneath; which is earthly, soulish, and demoniac." By their fruits they are known to the One Body which alone has spiritual intelligence to discern their true character. This measured community knows, that they are a base counterfeit that can only be made to pass current among those who are ignorant; and who mistake brass for the fine gold of the temple. The spiritual institutions of their unmeasured and excluded court, have no vitality in them; and can therefore save no one. Their way is the way of death -- the wide gate and the broad way leading to destruction. These Harlot-Churches of the Court are the leading novelties of modern times. They had no place in the Court four hundred years ago. Then the court was wholly occupied by Greek and Latin catholic idolatry; the Latin section of which they ignorantly acknowledge as the true church; and the common "Mother of All Churches." This is true. The state chuches are all her bastard progeny, begotten of her adulteries with the kings of the earth (ch. 18:3). Hence, her apocalyptic name, "Mother of Harlots." But, besides these harlot daughters, whose presence in the court she is too drunk and feeble to prevent -- "drunk," not so much with wine as with folly, and "with the blood of the saints and witnesses of Jesus" (ch. 17:6) she has a multitudinous brood of young serpents, styled "All the Abominations of the Earth." These are the Anti-State churches of the Court -- churches, not allied to the state, but holding dogmas, which are a mere dilution of the traditions of the Harlot Mother of Christendom. They pervade all the British isles and possessions, under the general denomination of "Protestant Dissenters;" and all the original United States, north and south. In the American section of the Court of the Gentiles, as there is no Harlot "by law established" with privileges from which her sister-prostitutes are excluded, "the Abominations" are not styled "Dissenters" and "Nonconformists." In this section of the court they are all equal before the world's law; but not equally respectable and orthodox in the world's esteem. Wealth, classical (or pagan) scholarship, and numbers are the criteria of their relative respectability and orthodoxy. The rulers and politicians of the "Model Republic," players all upon the world's boards, are the honored members or patrons of "all the Abominations of the Earth;" so that from the stage to the pulpit, and from the pulpit to "the floor of the House," there is no wider step than from the sublime to the ridiculous and profane. The legislators and executives of the protestant sections of the Court are the incarnations of the profanities and blasphemies inculcated by the spiritual craftsmen who live by "the Abominations," or "Denominations" of the earth. Hence, their legislation and rule are devilish and oppressive; and calculated to bring down upon them catastrophy and judgment, as at this day, but more intensely and generally hereafter. An enlightened spectator, contemplating the festering abominations of the European and American papal and sectarian sections of the Court of the Gentiles, might wonder at the long suffering and forbearance of the Deity, whose Name and Tabernacle they so grievously blaspheme. He might exclaim, "How long, O Yahweh, wilt thou not avenge thine own cause!" But, to him it might be replied, that the Deity remains silent, not because he is not indignant at the blasphemies, corruptions, and cruelties perpetrated against his dignity, and the well-being of his two witnesses or prophets; but because the Antichristian Court is "cast away out, and not measured." For this reason, the Gentiles have liberty to set up any, and all kinds of abominations in their court, or area of operation, without being subjected to immediate judgment for their crimes. Hence, polygamous Mormonism, and adulterous Romanism, courtezan state-churchism, and hypocritical sectarianism, all flourish in their several spheres of abomination. They are permitted to do as they please, until the measure or limit of the One Body's sackcloth probation is attained -- a measure indicated by John's symbolic resurrection from the death-sleep. John's rising up measured the altar worshipping of the nave, or saints of Deity. When these rise from the dust, and he with them, "the Angel stands" prepared to "finish the mystery of the Deity as he hath announced the good news to his servants the prophets" -- to break up the court, and to level the Great Mountain of human dominion and corruption, with which it is filled. There will then be no more Court of the Gentiles, and no more apocalyptic altar-worshipping for the One Body. All "the Abominations of the Earth," mere lies, vanities, and "things which are of no profit," will then be swept away with the besom of destruction; and nothing will survive, but the victorious and glorified community, symbolized by Zechariah as the Seven Branched Lightstand, and Olive trees. These will then burn the golden oil in the kingdom of their Father; and enlighten the subject nations with their glory. Such is the position of the One Body in the present altar-worshipping state. It is down-trodden -- trampled upon by the "miserable sinners" of the Court of the Gentiles -- "the Holy City," said the SpiritVoice, "shall they tread under foot." This is their present fate, in common with Israel after the flesh, who, for an evening morning of 2400 years past, according to the LXX, have also been trodden under foot by the Gentiles of the Court (Dan. 8:13, 14). The One Body, or "Holy City" is essentially antagonistic to the Sin-Powers of the Court, by what symbol or names soever they may be represented; for it is the Woman and her Seed in opposition to the Serpent and his Seed; two parties between whom there is irreconcilable hostility, which can only cease with the utter destruction of the Serpent-Powers of the Court (Gen. 3:15). In the apocalypse, the Holy City occupies a conspicuous and interesting position. The Holy City measured by John, and the Holy City measured by the Angel, are the same Holy City in two different states -- in the preresurrectional; and in the postresurrectional, states. Every immersed believer of the gospel of the kingdom and name, is an adopted citizen of the Holy City. Paul writing to such believers says: "Ye are come to Mount Zion, and unto the City of the Living Deity, the Heavenly Jerusalem," "the Mother of us all" (Heb. 12:22; Gal. 4:26). "Ye are come;" that is, not personally; but by faith; because "we walk by faith, not by sight." All that is promised concerning the future glory of the "barren Jerusalem that beareth not," and is now trampled upon by the Fourth Euphratean, or Ottoman, Angel-power, they heartily and affectionately believe: and believing these "exceeding great and precious promises," together with the things concerning Jesus, and the apostolic revelation of the mystery, they are reckoned by adoption through immersion into Christ, as if they had been royally born in the Asiatic city; and consequently entitled to share officially in all its good fortune when it shall break forth into singing, because her light is come, and the glory of Yahweh is risen upon her (Psa. 87:5, 6; Gal. 4:27; Isa. 54:1; 60:1). The true believers in the present altar-worshipping state are collectively the Holy City, the Municipality elect, and divinely appointed to rule in the restored Jerusalem, when it shall have been delivered by the Angel of the Bow from the Serpent-Power of the unmeasured court by which it is now "trodden under foot." 5. The Holy Polity Trampled Forty-two Months The Holy Body Politic is measured -- the period of its down-treading by Gentile barbarism is measured. The Court of the Gentiles will continue to exist a longer time than their trampling of the Holy City. Not being measured, it does not appear how much longer it will continue; but as the Holy Polity is to destroy the Court and its sin-powers, it follows necessarily, that the altar-worshipping and sackcloth prophesying of the Body, must come to an end before judgment is given to it. This limit of tribulation had been revealed to Daniel in the words of the oracle: "The Horn shall make war upon the saints, and prevail against them until the Ancient of Days come, and judgment be given to the saints" (ch. 7:21, 22; and in verse 25, "they shall be given into his power until a time and times and the dividing of time." In other words, at the end of this period the Ancient of Days will come; and then the saints will no longer be prevailed against, or "the Holy City be trodden under foot." This coming of the Ancient of Days is the limiting event of the down-treading measured off by John with "the reed like to a rod" given to him by the Spirit. In the record of his measurement, he turns Daniel's "time and times and the dividing of time," into "Forty and Two months." He says: "The nations shall trample the Holy City forty and two months" (ch. 11:2). Hence, at the termination of these months the trampling is to cease in the advent of Christ and the resurrection of his brethren -- "the time of the dead" (ch. 11:18). Now he comes "as a thief" under the sixth vial, while the Franco-Frog power is in active operation (ch. 16:12-15); hence, the "forty and two months" must terminate then; an end that must be exceedingly near. But, are these forty and two months simply months of days; or are they symbolic months of days, each day signifying a year? To affirm that they are months of days and nothing more, would be a violation of all decorum. To have evolved a scriptural exposition of the reed, the rod, the angel, the nave, the altar, the court, and the city; and to have shown that John and his actions were representative; and then to affirm, that the time related to these things is to be expounded upon an entirely opposite principle -- that the time is literal months and no more, is irrational, contrary to the analogy of scripture, incongruous to the subject treated of, and contrary to historic fact. Nearly eighteen hundred years have elapsed since John saw the vision of the eleventh chapter. When he saw it, the One Body was in the altar-worshipping and sackcloth situation. It was then warred upon by the pagan Roman power, the Little Horn with the Eyes of a Man, and a blaspheming Mouth, having then no existence in the Court of the Gentiles. But, instead of being "prevailed against," "overcome and killed," the One Body "overcame the great red Roman dragon by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony" (Apoc. 12:3, 9-11). It was not "trodden under foot" of pagan Rome; but Rome pagan is placed under its feet, under the symbol of "a Woman with the Moon under her feet" (ch. 12:1). Hence, there is no sense in which it could be then said of the one Body, "the Holy City shall the Gentiles trample forty and two months" of days, and days only: for history shows that the trampling was the reverse of this; and that the conflict between the pagan dragon and the Holy City neither forty and two months nor 1260 days, nor 1260 years; but the much shorter period of 226 years from the time John measured the Holy City until "the dragon was cast out into the earth." Now, the historic fact is, that over two hundred years after the pagan dragon was overcome by the saints, the Eyes and Mouth of the Little Horn were constitutionally established as "the God of the Earth" (ch. 11:4). The Little-Horn power that had destroyed the Asiatic Jerusalem, disregarded the god of his fathers, called Jupiter; and this new god, whom his pagan predecessors knew not, he honoured, and legally established in his estate, or empire (Dan. 11:37, 38). This was the Little Horn ecclesiatical element, into whose hand, or power, Daniel was told that the saints should be given, until the elapse of "a time and times and the dividing of a time" (ch. 7:25). Many periods of forty-two literal months elapsed in these two hundred years; in all of which the saints were untrampled by the nations. But when this New God came up in the midst of their court, the situation of the Holy City was entirely changed. Forty and Two months of years have nearly elapsed since then; and in all this time the Holy City has been in the altar-worshipping and sackcloth prophesying measurement of time. Shall we ignore this remarkable fact and say, "Oh, that is nothing at all!" and, for the sake of reducing all students of the prophecy to one common low level of ignorance, affirm "that the fulfilment of what is written in the book of The Revelations, from chap. 4 inclusive, is still future?" For men to affirm this, is proof of their entire and gross ignorance of the whole subject. But many people, who are lost in the night of Egypt, desire to be thought as wise by others as they are in their own conceits. In regard to the apocalypse, they feel poignantly and painfully their deep and ineradicable ignorance; they can make nothing of it, and being too selfconceited to be taught, or envious and hateful of those who are able to teach them, they aim to allay their vexation by the comforting delusion, that its events and times are all in the future, and "in close connection with the appearing of Christ;" so that, of course, the most intelligent and the most ignorant in the word and history, are equally in the dark concerning it. This is very consoling to the envious, who love darkness rather than light, if the light proceed from any but themselves. The Apocalypse all in the future except the first three chapters!! If the reader has followed our exposition from the beginning of the fourth to the present writing, we believe he will find it impossible to endorse such "a foolish notion." He will be able to say boldly, that the dogma of the futurists is a mere old wife's fable; and utterly unworthy of the grave consideration of a true believer -- a servant of the Deity sealed in the forehead with the seal of the living God (ch. 7:2, 3). In my exposition of the ninth chapter, I have shown that "months" there can only signify periods of thirty years -- verses 5, 10, 15. The word signifies the same period of time in the text before us. "Forty and Two months" of symbolic time are as many years as they contain days. Forty and two months are 1260 days; so that, on the principle of a day for a year, as in chap. 9, the Holy City is trampled to the end of 1260 years. This One Body has been altar-worshipping, and "clothed with sackcloth," in nearly all this time; during which "the great harlot that" still "sits upon many waters," whose polity is symbolized by "a scarlet-colored beast full of names of blasphemy," has become drunk with their blood (ch. 17:1-3). There are no data in the first and second verses of this eleventh chapter to show at what epoch these "forty and two months," or 1260 years of trampling begin. We are informed that they shall end at John's rising up, which is the terminal measure of their continuance. This, as I have shown, is the import of the command to him, "Rise up and measure." But, the same Spirit told Daniel, that the time was the period of the saints being in the hand of the Little Horn with Eyes and Mouth; if, therefore, it can be ascertained when they were turned over by authority to the ecclesiastical horn-power, the commencement of the "forty and two months" will be determined. The words of the oracle, are, "they shall be given into his hand. This implies a giver -- one having power, by which he would be able to place the saints under the jurisdiction of him who should "wear them out, and think to change times and laws" (Dan. 7:25). This powerful giver was unquestionably the Sixth Head of the Dragon; or "the king that shall do according to his will, and shall honor a god whom his fathers knew not." The throne of this dragon-king is Constantinople. It was removed here from Rome by Constantine "the Great;" a removal, that prepared the way for the manifestation in Rome of this new god, who would speak great things against the Most High. The principal bishop of the catholic idolatry in Rome was developed into "the God of all the earth" by the legislative favor of the imperial Constantinopolitan power. This development was legislative and circumstantial, and therefore progressive. He was no meteoric upstart in the Seven-hilled city; but a bastard deity, who had been begotten in the Roman Mother by the adulterous embrace of the imperial power. Rome was pregnant with this blasphemous deity during a gestative "set time" of two hundred and eighty years -- nine months and ten days being the physiological period of human incubation. From a.d. 324 to a.d. 604-8, was this "god of guardian saints" in the embryo, or foetal state. He was quickened into political life as a future imperial element of the fourth beast dominion of the Court, by Justinian's Code, a.d. 529, and his Decretal Epistle, a.d. 533; which affirmed the Roman Bishop's universal supremacy in spiritual affairs. Seventy-five years after this quickening, he was born God of the Roman earth by Phocas, the Dragon emperor, acknowledging the supremacy of his See, a.d. 604; in grateful commemoration of which, and other benefits, the New Deity caused to be erected by the exarch of Italy a Corinthian fluted column of Greek marble, standing on a pyramid of eleven steps, on the top of which was a gilt statue of Phocas. The date of the pillar was a.d. 608; and the occasion of the honor is stated in the inscription to be, "Pro innumerabilibus Pietatis ejus Beneficiis, et pro Quiete procurata Italioe, ac conservata Libertate." Surely, the birth of "the God the earth" was an event to be celebrated in grateful honor upon the imperial creator! Perhaps a baser wretch than Phocas never wore the dragon-crown; but the baser the more worthy in the estimation of the new god. By the murder of the imperial family, the usurper had given absolute liberty and supremacy to the Roman bishop; besides bestowing liberal donations upon the Roman churches. He was therefore entitled "His Piety;" and the pillar was erected "For the innumerable benefits of His Piety, and for the quiet procured to Italy, and the preservation of liberty." Thus, by this development of the Roman bishop into the responsible "god of the earth," all spiritual things were "given into his hand" by imperial authority and power. He was constituted the Lord Spiritual of all christians, who were denounced as heretics fit only for fire and sword, if they dared to question his divinity. Under his supremacy they were adjudged to the flames, had their tongues cut out, denied "christian burial," as he styled it, and deprived, not only of the benefits of society, but of the common birthright of men. Such was the iron yoke forged by the decrees of the Greco-Dragon emperors, who gave all their subjects into the hand of the God they set up in the pre-Constantinian seat of their dominion; thus, "giving him his power, his seat, and great authority" (ch. 13:2): that "he might as God sit in the temple of the god, showing himself that he is a god" (2 Thess. 2:4). All That Time Has Spared From The Glorious Yesterday Of the Forum Romanum This epoch, then, of the four years between a.d. 604-8, in which the Roman Bishop was set up for the supreme deity of the Court of the Gentiles -- above all civil rulers; or, as Paul expresses it, "above all that is called a god, or that is worshipped;" is the only one that I can discover in history in harmony with the word, as the epoch of commencement for the "forty and two months" of years, or 1260 years, for the trampling of the Holy City by the nations. The terminal epoch, of course, upon this basis will be between the end of the years a.d. 1864 and 1868. In these terminal four years ending in the spring of '69, it may therefore be expected, that "the time of the dead" to rise up, as prefigured by John, will have arrived; when the forty and two months being ended, the trampling of the Holy City will be no more. II. The Mission of the One Body in the Altar-Worshipping and Sackcloth-Prophesying Situation of its Affairs The third verse of this chapter testifies as follows: "And I will give to my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and sixty days, having been clothed with sackcloths." Here is a proposition plainly stated. There can be no mistake, one would think, as to the personage who makes the statement. The "I" is, doubtless, the Spirit who speaks to the ecclesias, and who said to John. "Rise up and measure the nave of the Deity." He gave John power to do this in giving him the "reed like to a rod," the symbol of the measurement. John, on awaking, no doubt, obeyed the order; having accomplished the work, the Spirit added, "And I will give to my two witnesses" a certain mission to perform. The measuring was John's work; the prophesying, theirs; and with this John was to have nothing to do, in person, until he shall "rise up" in "the time of the dead," and rejoin his classmates, as a constitutent of the Angel of the Bow; and with one foot upon the sea, and the other upon the earth, prophesy with the voice of Boanerges in the utterances of Seven Thunders, "before many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and kings" (ch. 10). The Spirit styles them "my two witnesses." They are therefore the Witnesses of the Spirit, styled in ch. 17:6, hoi martures Iesou, the witnesses of Jesus -- of Yah the Saviour. A witness is one who gives testimony to the truth at the hazard of liberty, estate, and life. The Spirit's witnesses are witnesses of this kind. They testified to "the truth as it is in Jesus," in opposition to "every high thing that exalteth itself against the Deity's knowledge;" consequently, they were conspicuous in testifying against the catholic worshipping of the daemonials and idols; and all the other abominations they encountered in the Court of the Gentiles. Many of them incurred the loss of all things -- "they love not their lives unto the death" (ch. 12:11); therefore they are described in "the time of the dead," as "the souls of them who were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of the Deity, and who had not worshipped the Beast, neither his Image, neither had received the mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands;" and to show that these witnesses are the Saints, it is added, "and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years" (ch. 20:4). To these witnesses something was given -- "And I will give to my two witnesses," saith the Spirit. What was this that was given? It could be nothing else than the gift of prophecy; for it is immediately added, as the result of the gift received, "and they shall prophesy." Now, the nature of the gift is determined by what, as prophets, they were to accomplish. They were to devour their enemies by fire bursting forth out of their mouth; to shut the heaven that it rain not; to turn the waters into blood; and to smile the earth with every plague (verses 5, 6). These effects were to result from their testimony delivered "in their days of the prophecy;" for when those days were expired, "their testimony was finished," and they could neither prophesy, no do any of these terrible things. Their tormenting power was gone, and the agency by which it was executed was silenced in death (verses 7-10): The nature of the prophetic gift bestowed upon these formidable witnesses was divine. It was a divine power imparted to them, which none of their adversaries of the unmeasured Court could gainsay or successfully resist. It had given to them when the angel, who had ascended from the east, sealed them in their foreheads with the seal of the Living Deity (ch. 7:2, 3): a.d. 325, and onwards. As the result of this sealing, the word of the Deity dwelt in them richly in all wisdom and spiritual understanding; and as "the word of the truth of the gospel" is a great unfulfilled, as well as partially fulfilled, prophecy, the sealed, in vocalizing its testimony before the ignorant, are "prophets," whose inspiration is the word understood and believed. For this reason it is, that the saints are said to "prophesy," when they state, illustrate, and prove the truth. "He that prophesieth," saith Paul, "speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort" (1 Cor. 14:3); and "he that prophesieth edifieth the ecclesia" (ver. 4); therefore he saith in another place, "despise not prophesyings." The essential difference between the prophets of antiquity, and "the two prophets" of this eleventh chapter, is not as to the matter given, but the manner in which that matter was imparted. The ancient prophets and apostles received the subject matter they proclaimed by revelation direct from Deity; while the apocalyptic prophets receive it by hearing expounded, and reading the writings in which the direct revelation is contained. A merely natural man is an empty earthen vessel. He contains none of "the golden oil." What he knows, he knows only as a natural brute beast; and like other animals, obeys only the impulses of his "inner consciousness." Such a human creature is utterly destitute of inspiration; and the efforts to enlighten him prove fruitless, he is fit only for capture and destruction. The unmeasured Court of the Gentiles is the aggregate of such; and in the midst of so dark and dangerous a community, the Spirit's Witnesses were appointed to operate for a testimony against them. These witnessing prophets were inspired by the truth; and the truth is declared to be "the power of the Deity for the salvation of every one that believes it" (Rom. 1:16). "Power belongeth unto him;" and "he giveth strength and power to his people;" and the truth is his power by which his witnesses are able to do, what mere naturals are utterly impotent to effect. But the truth in His witnesses is the power of the Deity to work intellectual and moral results; and is "the savor of life ending in life" to those who believe; and of "death ending in death" to those who do not. Hence, it divides the peoples in the Court into two general divisions, believers and unbelievers, between whom the truth generates implacable hostility; for as in the days of Isaac, "he that was born after the flesh persecuted him born after the Spirit, even so it is now," "in all their days of the prophecy" (Gal. 4:29). This state of feeling is the "enmity" put between the two seeds by Divine Power (Gen. 3:15); so that a man's foes are often those of his own house. But the truth in the Spirit's witnessing prophets is not uniform in its effects. The character of these depends materially upon the nature of the soil into which the incorruptible seed is sown (Matt. 13:19-26). In this parable, there are no less than six varieties of product from the same sowing -- the way side, the stony, the thorny and the good; and three varieties even of the good. These all received the word sown into theft hearts, even with joy; but it was only those who, with honest and good hearts, understood it, brought forth fruit unto endless life. The good soil believers are the Spirit's witnessing prophets; while the other soil believers, not sufficiently evangelized for their own personal salvation, are too much enlightened to accept the dogmas of the Great Harlot, of her Harlot-Daughters, and of the Denominations, alias, the Abominations, of the earth; or to conform to their ordinances and institutions. Hence, the Court of the Gentiles, besides containing the Harlots and Abominations, has a numerous class of nondescripts, who are not professors of any of the superstitions of the Court. These are variously styled by the spirituals of the world, "infidels," "liberals," "revolutionists," "disorganizers," "democrats," and so forth; but apocalyptically they are termed, "the Earth" (ch. 12:16). In the way previously explained, this apocalyptic earth is a creation of the truth ministered by the Spirit's witnessing prophets, "who keep the commandments of the Deity, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ." It is not a homogeneous rabble such as may be found in all ages and generations of the world. It is, on the contrary, a heterogeneous company of divers sorts and conditions of men, as appears from Gen. 6:12, where the phrase is applied to "all flesh;" as, "the Earth was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted Yahweh's way upon the earth;" and again, "Hear, O Earth, the words of my mouth!" (Deut. 32:1). But relatively to the Spirit's witnessing prophets, "the earth" is used in a more restricted sense. "The Earth that helps the Woman" is all those upon whom her testimony or principles, or both, have made a favorable impression. Though they may not at all be influenced by her moral and doctrinal precepts for salvation, they incorporate her principles of "civil and religious liberty," and what they call "the rights of man," which were abolished by the edicts of the Imperial Dragon, when he subjected the nations of his dominion to the absolute sovereignty of the Episcopal God of the earth, a.d. 529. No one imbued with the principles of civil and religious liberty could forbear to testify against arbitrary power in Church and State; and when natural men become impregnated with such principles, they become impetuous and impatient of oppression, which is said to drive even a wise man mad; and in their fury organize resistance, and seek the overthrow and destruction of the oppressor. Such an "earth" as this did not exist in the ages and generations of Rome pagan. The Woman then had no Earth devoted to religious liberty to interpose itself between her and the arbitrary ferocity of "the great red dragon;" the whole brunt of this sanguinary despotism fell directly upon her unprotected self. It was not till after the establishment of that worse than pagan superstition -- that "dreadful and terrible" blasphemy, surnamed the Holy Catholic Church, that "the Earth" in its witnessing relations appeared upon the arena. When aroused to action in the unmeasured Court, it was a terror of the oppressors of the saints. It tormented them with all the plagues of war; and devoured them with fire and sword, as its own peculiar testimony against "the God of the earth," and the Sin-powers that sustained him. An arrangement of this sort was absolutely necessary for the preservation and protection of the One Body, witnessing for the truth against "the worshipping of the daemonials and idols," in the midst of the nations, and "before the God of the earth;" the weapons of whose warfare were civil disabilities, and the infernal tortures of anti-heretical crusades and inquisitions. The One Body, of which Christ is the Head is commanded by him, not to avenge itself; not to take any other sword than "the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of the Deity;" not to resist evil; if smitten upon one cheek to turn the other; and many other precepts, of which his own individual conduct when in the hands of his enemies, was an unmistakable illustration. In view of these commands, how was such a Polity to devour its enemies with fire, to turn waters into blood, and to smite the earth with plagues? Manifestly such a work of death and destruction was incompatible with obedience to such precepts of non-resistance. War and desolation are no part of christian duty. "The servant of the Lord must not strive; but be gentle unto all." This principle faithfully and duly observed by all the Lord's servants in his absence, will prevent them from avenging their own wrongs; or lending themselves as instruments in the quarrels of others, be they individuals or nations. No degradation more ignominous can befal a servant of the Lord than that of being a bloodshedder in the service of any of the Sin-powers of the unmeasured Court. To be employed in such a service, is to be servant of the Lord's enemies. "No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of life; that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier." This is the duty of all soldiers -- they must labor to please their owners. Hence, the world's soldiers must please the world, who is their lord and master; and "if I please men," says Paul, "I should not be the servant of Christ;" for Christ himself says, "that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of the Deity" (Luke 16:15; Gal. 1:10). The saints cannot serve two masters, Christ and Sin. If they "endure hardness as good soldiers of Jesus Christ;" and "fight the good fight of faith" scripturally, they cannot at the same time "serve Sin" in the armies of "the God of the earth" -- the armies of the nations of the Court. Their mission is to "contend earnestly for the faith once for all delivered to the saints;" which protests against all the wars and fightings of the Gentiles as emanating from their unhallowed and unbridled lusts. What has the Holy City, trampled by the Gentiles, to do with what they deem great, sacred and good? What is the judgment of these worth in the premises? Doth not the word testify that they are all fools and drunk? And shall saints, the salt of the earth and the light of the world, lose their savour in the service of such, and be darkened by the fog of their delusions? Thus were organized in the unmeasured Court of the Gentiles two powerful antagonisms -- civil and religious despotism, on the one hand; and civil and religious liberty, on the other. The adherents of the despotisms, in their civil and ecclesiastical organization, were the Dragon, the Ten Horns, the God of the earth, the Great Harlot, her Daughters, and the Abominations of the earth -- a blind, corrupt, and cruel host; while opposed to these, were the One Body and its unconscious instrument, "the Earth" -- unconscious that it was the divinely appointed and divinely energized agent for the aid, nourishment, and vindication of the Spirit's witnessing prophets against their enemies. Here, then, were two cooperative organizations against the Catholic Apostasy of the Court. Without any treaty of alliance offensive and defensive, and without any direct mutual understanding, the ages and generations of the past found them standing side by side in witnessing and prophesying with tormenting effect against the blasphemies and abominations of "them who dwell upon the earth." Each witness had its own speciality. Christ's brethren testified the gospel, and laid before the Court the way of salvation. They showed men what they must believe and do for the remission of all their past sins; and for the obtaining a right to the tree of life in the Holy City, when it shall be measured by the angel of the golden reed -- ch. 21:15; 22:14. In doing this, they did their utmost to neutralize the teaching of the Jeromes, Augustines, Ambroses, and Martins, of the apostasy; and to turn the hearts of the peoples from their profane fables to "the engrafted word which is alone able to save their souls." In this work they were eminently successful. They filled the Court with their doctrine, which inflicted great torment of mind upon the clerical and ministerial craftsmen, whose pride, arrogance, and flesh, fattened upon its superstitions and delusions. Such torment, of course, could not fail to arouse all the bitterness and animosity of sin's flesh. The firm of the Jeromes, Augustines, and company, perceived that their episcopal craft was in danger; and that if they left this witness alone, the evil might become so great, that they might not be able to hold their own. Something, they concluded, must be done for the preservation of their fables and traditions. It had not yet become the custom for catholic to burn heretic; although the tendency to that orthodox solution of inconvenient questions was becoming rife. In a.d. 385, the blood of Priscillianists had been shed by catholic ministers; but this was not the rule. When the Christadelphians, or Brethren of Christ, undertook to protest against practices which they regarded as superstitious and unscriptural, they were then, as now, assailed with every expression of contumely and rancor. But the wordy passion and invectives of their enemies broke no bones, and destroyed no lives. These witnessing prophets of the Spirit were not to be deterred by hard words. They continued to contend earnestly for the "one body, one Spirit, one hope, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, and one Deity;" and to admit of no truce or compromise with anything that rendered one or all of these of none effect. Their course was onward by the light of the word, and by that only; so that by the time the Roman Bishop was primarily developed into "the God of the earth" by Justinian's Decretal Epistle, a.d. 529, they had become a numerous and influential community in all the nations of the West. But, when this "Name of Blasphemy, speaking great things," had received political life; and had been set up as a living Image of Imperial Power, styled "the Image of the Beast" in ch. 13:14; a change for the worse came over the situation of affairs. "All, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond," were commanded to worship this image upon pain of death; and "to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their forehead; and that no man might buy and sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name." This pressed with great hardship upon the One Body; and upon those who were pledged to the antipapal principles of civil and religious liberty. Multitudes preferred death to submission to this decree; and determined to draw the sword in defence of "conscience and the rights of man," thus violently assailed by the new "god of all the earth." This Moloch of the Seven Hills was not backward in affording them scope for the development of their prowess in all the nations of the court. He proclaimed crusades against them; and called upon his worshippers to gather their hosts, and to take the field against them, and to slay them with utter and exterminating slaughter. "The Earth," the Spirit's other witness, embraced the conflict, undismayed by the power and ferocity of the foe. With fire and sword, which was their testimony practically administered, they tormented the minions of the oppressor. The prophesying of "the Earth" that "helped the Woman," was not to be despised by the priests and rulers of the nations. They devoured their enemies in war; and shut the heaven of the Court, that there should be no peace "in their days of the prophecy." 1. "The Light Shining in Darkness" Thus, the history of the ages and the generations of the unmeasured Court is in strict harmony with this prophecy of the witnesses. For a period considerably over a thousand years after Rome renounced its old gods for the ghosts, dry bones, and fables of the catholic superstition, the Spirit had provided himself with Two Witnessing Classes, to whose custody he providentially committed the truth, and its judicial vindication by fire and sword. This was their combined mission in all that long series of centuries. The one witness was the military arm of the other; and both in combination were the two arms of the Spirit, holding the Olive Branch in one hand, and the Flaming Sword, in the other. "These," said the Spirit-Voice to John, "are the Two Olive Trees and two Lightstands, which have stood before the god of the earth." That is, the Two Olive Trees, or Branches, and Two Golden Pipes, about which Zechariah made special inquiry, represent these two classes of anti-catholic and antipapal, but not "protestant," though protesting, witnesses. They are represented by two olive trees, because, though generically one, they are distinct species of witnesses. They are both olive trees, in whom light-giving oil was generated, as already explained; but the one class of witnessing prophets is of the wild olive species; while the other is of the good, or cultivated olive. In the eleventh chapter of Romans, Paul compares all mankind to two olive trees of the wild and cultivated species. The twelve tribes of Israel to whose country the olive is indigenous he likens to "a good olive tree," with a "holy root," representing "the fathers" Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, on whose account the whole nation is beloved. The rest of mankind he compares to "a wild olive tree," which is smaller and inferior in all its parts. Eliphaz in Job 15:33, compares a wicked man to an olive tree whose flowers fall before their season, and consequently brings no fruit. Such is the primary import of these two trees, symbols of Israel and the Gentiles. But, the Israelitish Olive Tree, and the Gentile Olive Tree, signified something more than this in the symbols before us. There was a specialty to be represented which had been apostolically elicited. This was the adoption of believing Gentiles into the Israelitish Family, that they might be Israelites in every particular, except the accident of birth according to nature. This adoption, Paul styles "grafting in;" and figuratively represents the process, as a breaking of branches off from the wild Gentile olive, and inserting them into the place of certain sapless branches of the good Israelitish olive, which had also been broken off, and cast away. This teaches allegorically that while the good olive tree represents the Israelitish peoples generally; there is nevertheless a Gentile element in the nation, equally interested in the promises made to their fathers, which are "the fatness of the tree." Thus, the good olive tree represents "the Israel of the Deity," constituted of Israelites and Gentiles, who believe "the promises covenanted to the fathers;" and who, since Pentecost, a.d. 34, have believed "the truth as it is in Jesus," and by immersion into him, have been adopted, or grafted into the Commonwealth of Israel, as it will be in the times of restitution. This union of Israelites and Gentiles into One Body, or Holy City, was represented to Zechariah, by connecting the two trees by means of two golden pipes with the one golden bowl of the lightstand; the idea of branch-union being set forth in the connection of the pipes with certain branches of the trees. In the eleventh chapter of the Apocalypse, the two olive trees are not united by pipes into one lightstand, as in Zechariah. This is an important item in the premises. In the first chapter, there is only one Lightstand with seven burners; but in the text before us, we have "two lightstands" with a tree to each. Had there been but one class of witnesses, composed of faithful and obedient Israelites and Gentiles, there would, doubtless, have been only one Lightstand, indicative of their union into One Body. We should then have found it impossible to interpret "the prophecy" in harmony with the anti-war principles delivered to it. But we are relieved of this difficulty by the introduction into the vision of two separate and distinct lightstands. A wild olive branch and a lightstand are symbolical of "the Earth" -- the anticatholic and antipapal champion of civil and religious liberty, and the rights of man, standing defiantly "before the god of the earth," and the other branches of the wild olive tree. Fed by the revolutionary principles of wild olive liberalism, the earthy lightstand shone with light amid the deep and universal gloom of "the dark ages." But, if this "lux lucens in tenebris," or light shining in darkness, had been the only light, it would have been a feeble one indeed. It would have been like the light of "peace democracy" shining in the abolition darkness of the past four years. There was another lightstand and a good olive branch. These symbolized the One Body, witnessing the truth. This lightstand shone with the light of the word, "Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light to my path" (Psa. 119:105). This was "the golden oil" of the good olive, by which the lightstand burners were fed. It was "the unction from the Holy One by which they knew all the things" they witnessed; and by which they were taught, "and is the truth" (1 John 2:20, 27). By the shining of the light from this lightstand, the gross darkness of catholic superstition and idolatry were made tormentingly manifest. The god of the earth, his cardinals, bishops, priests, deacons, monks, and such like, were exhibited to the peoples of the Court, as profane mountebanks, and blasphemous impostors. The light showed them to be, what they are to this day, unrepentant hypocrites, and a generation of poisonous serpents. Multitudes were enlightened to discern this; and caused thereby to desert the temples of the god. They recruited the ranks of the witnesses, and greatly increased their power; until the issue was formed, that either these lightstands must be extinguished; or the spirituals of the wickedness of the Court would find their occupation gone. 2. "The God of the Earth" Now, it is expressly said, that these "two witnesses," "two olive trees," "two lightstands," and "two prophets," "have stood before the god of the earth." This was to be their position. This god is not to be mistaken for the Eternal Creator. Though he made the earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein; and claims them all as his, He is not styled in this prophecy "the God of the earth." His title in this chapter is "the God of heaven," to whom glory is ascribed at the concluding act of the second woe (ch. 11:13). It is true, these witnesses in a certain sense stand before the Creator; but in the sense of giving testimony against, they do not; and that enopion, before, is to be understood in the sense of against, is evident from the effect of their testimony which "torments," and stirs up the powers to destroy them (verses 7, 10). These two witnessing classes of antipapists confront the representatives of the papal deity in all the nations of the abyss; and in so doing, they stand in a hostile attitude before the God of the earth. I have already shown, that this was a deity newly come up from the abyss, which was entirely unknown to the nations of the fourth beast dominion, commonly styled the pagan Roman empire; and that he was two hundred and eighty years, after the similitude of a foetus in embryo being two hundred and eighty days in developing into "the Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself over every one called god, or an object of fear" -- sebasma -- into the Lawless One, ho Anomos, who, Daniel was informed, would "think to change times and laws;" and "whom the Lord will consume with the Spirit of his mouth, and destroy in the manifestation of his presence -- te epiphaneia tes parousias autou (2 Thess. 2:3, 4, 8). This lawless deity of the court, who sets himself above all law even in his decrepitude, while he has to be supported upon his tottering throne against "the Earth" by French bayonets, claims to be the successor of the apostle Peter, and Vicegerent of Jesus Christ -- in other words, the Antichrist -- anti, instead of, christos, Christ. That the term deity, or god, is rightly applied to this imperially apotheosized Roman bishop, is apparent from the following testimonies: "The venerable name of Pope (or Father)" says Gibbon, speaking of a.d. 500, "was now appropriated to the Roman Pontiff." Addressed by nations, it was an imperial, and originally a divine title. So Ovid says to Augustus, "Thou hast that name through earth, which in high heaven is Jupiter's; thou, the Father of men, He of the gods." And Horace, "Here thou mayest love to be called Father and Prince." The title as given to the Roman Bishop, was sometimes in the form Pater Patrum, Father of fathers; as in a letter from the bishop of Larissa to Boniface II., a.d. 531, in which occurs the sentence, "to my holy lord, and over all most blessed, and truly venerable Father of Fathers, the universal Patriarch (Chief Father) Boniface." The imperial and royal sense attached to the title pope, is illustrated in the legend of the medal of Julius III.; "Dominus Julius Rep. Christianae Rex. ac Pater -- "Lord Julius, King and Father of the Christian Commonwealth." In the time of Charlemagne, a.d. 799, a Roman Council declared, that the Pope who was the judge of all men was above being judged by any other than himself. So in the year 1090, "that the right of judging concerning every church is to the Pope alone; but he himself, indeed, is subject to the judgment of none." Afterwards in the Canon Law, collected and published by Gratian in the 12th century, it was said, "It is certain that the Pontiff was called a God by the pious prince Constantine; and it is manifest that God cannot be judged by men." This claim continued unchanged in the 15th century. So a.d. 1463, on Paul II. dismissing Platina after his election, and Platina's threatening to bring the case before the judges of the Rota, Paul fiercely replied, "Thou bring us before the judges? Would'st thou not know, that all laws are placed in the repository of our breast?-- I am Pontiff: and upon the pleasure of my mind it depends both to rescind, and approve the acts of others." Assuredly, no future antichrist can be more entitled to the name, "Lawless," than the popes. They exalted themselves above all called god, or an object of homage, worship, or fear. This papal exaltation and superiority above all royal majesty, Innocent III. declared to be that of the sun above the moon; and Gregory VII. affirmed that it was fit that all Princes should kiss his feet. He claimed to make and unmake kings; to assign kingdoms and to take them away. Pius II. proposed even to the sultan of Turkey to give him a legal title to the Greek empire, if he would assist him. And to come nearer to our own times, we find Pius VII., while suffering under the deep humiliation inflicted upon him by Napoleon, asserting the same authority. "Let them learn," said he, in his excommunication of Napoleon, June 10, 1809, "that they are subjected by the laws of Jesus Christ to our throne, and to our commandment." Concerning Celestin III., on occasion of the coronation of Henry VI. of Germany, a.d. 1191, Roger of Hoveden, gives the following illustration of the pope's exaltation of himself "above all called god." "The Lord Pope," says he: "sat in the pontifical chair, holding the golden imperial crown between his feet; and the Emperor bending his head received the crown, and the Empress in the same manner, from the feet of the Lord Pope. But the Lord Pope instantly struck with his foot the Emperor's crown, and cast it upon the ground; signifying that he had the power of deposing him from the Empire, if he were undeserving of it. The Cardinals however lifted up the crown, and placed it on the Emperor's head." The pope was frequently addressed as Christ, and received the title as distinctively and only his due. Illustrative of this S. Bernard in the 12th century writes to Pope Eugenius, "Consider that thou art the Vicar of Christ, the Christ of the Lord." Another and later illustration occurs in an official report about Pope Martin's embassy to the Greek Emperor containing the following description of the Pope by his own accredited orator: "The most Holy and most Blessed One, who hath divine judgment, who is Lord on earth; successor of Peter, the Lord's Christ, Lord of the universe, Father of kings, Light of the world, the Chief Pontiff Pope Martin." It was the command of Gregory VII., that "the name of the pope alone should be recited in the churches;" and Southey observes, that men were required to bow at the Pope's name (so recited) as at Christ's. In setting up for Vicar, he claimed to be the substitute, not of a pure man, but of the true God -- "Summus Pontifex non hominis purised "veri Dei, vere Vicarius appellatur:" -- ruling in place of the true God on earth -- "veri Dei, vicem gerit in terris," as said Innocent III. "Sir Culling Eardly," says Mr. Elliott, from whose Latin notes I have translated these gleanings, "in a late pamphlet, notices the following title of a book, published with the sanction of the Neapolitan censorship in 1724, and which illustrates the common application of this title Vice-God to the popes, even in the 18th century: "Istoria dell' antica Republica di amalfi; Consecrata al Vice Deo Benedetto decimo-terzo, Pontefice Ottimo Massimo. Con licenza dei Superiori" -- History of the ancient Republic of Amalphi; Consecrated to the Vice-God Benedict XIII., a perfectly good supreme pontiff. With license of the Superiors. The Papal Casuists say, "that honor which is due to Christ, according to what God is, is due to the Pope; because honor is due to power. But the power of Christ, according to what God is, and of the Pope, is one." The same had been set forth by Innocent in his Decretals, "the Pope is God because the Vicar of God: also in the Canon Laws' statement, before referred to, that Constantine called the pope a God; with the gloss, "Our Lord God the Pope." The Pope carried in Godlike State like the ancient Babylonian Pontifex Maximus (From a Roman Painting depicted in Horae Apocalypticae, vol. 3) illustrating the comment in Eureka. The Pope is depicted holding aloft "the Host", a bit of dough transformed, he asserts, into the real flesh and blood of Christ. This fable was derived from pagan Babylonian mythology. See Hislop's Two Babylons. The following is a striking statement to the same effect from the "Speculum Vitae Humanae" of Rodericus Sancius, Romish Bishop and Refendary of Paul II.; a book published at Rome by Papal authority, in 1468, and many times afterwards. "The majesty of his most sacred state impairs every human intellect. If nothing in this world is more excellent than the state of simple priests, what must be thought of the Chief Pontiff who rules on earth instead of the true God? who is exalted, not only to a human sovereignty, but to a divine one; not to ruling mortals alone, but angels; not to judging the living, but also the dead; not on earth alone, but in heaven, by the great God, and in his place." The saying of a certain French writer concerning a particular pope would be well and truly applied to the whole fraternity of papal gods. "The bulls of John XXIII.," says he, "commenced with a lie -- Servant of the servants of God. He ought rather to have entitled himself Lord of lords. Seeing that he boasts himself of having as much power as Jesus Christ possesses, as God and man." Some lines were addressed to an elephant presented to Leo X., two of which were as follows: Si servire Deo vere est regnare, Leoni Dum servis regnas: nam Leo in orbe Deus. If to serve God truly is to reign, while thou servest Leo thou reignest; for Leo is God on earth -- App. to Roscoe's Leo, X. This exaltation of the Roman Bishop from a Patriarch, or Chief Father, into the God of the earth, was not altogether approved by his brethren. Arnulph of Orleans in the Synod at Rheims, a.d. 991, exclaimed in reference to John XV.: "What is this, Reverend Fathers, sitting upon a lofty throne, radiant with a golden and purple vesture; what, I say, think ye that this is? Doubtless, if he is destitute of love, and puffed up and exalted with knowledge only, he is Antichrist sitting in the temple of Deity and exhibiting himself as if he were God." Arnulph's suspicion was well founded, only he erred in supposing that Antichrist was to be found sitting in the temple of the true God. This is an universal error. The temple of the Deity who created all things, is a living temple; a house not made with hands. In such a temple as the Roman, he does not dwell. His habitation is that Spiritual House, built up by his formative word, of lively precious stones, called saints, because they are "sanctified in Christ Jesus." In this temple of the Deity, Antichrist has never yet sat enthroned, nor ever will. He sits in his own temple -- in the temple of the God of the earth; and there, as represented in an engraving published at Rome with license of the authorities, and republished in Elliott's Hor. Apoc. he sits upon the high altar of the Cathedral dedicated to Peter; and receives the adoration of his scarlet-robed cardinals, who worship him by bowing down before him, and kissing his toe! Thus, he sits in the temple of the deity as a deity, publicly exhibiting himself that he is a deity." This is what Paul said, and most strikingly and literally it has come to pass. In the year 727, Gregory II, boasted to the Dragon-Emperor, that "all the kings of the west held the pope to be a God upon earth." In this he told the truth; for when Stephen visited France to obtain aid from the Franks against the Lombards, Pepin received him, according to Sismondi, as a Divinity. In Elliott's repository of papal curiosities, I have before me copies of medals, which illustrate very forcibly the "great things and blasphemies" of the Man Eyes and Mouth of the Little Horn, which were developed into the deity of the earth; before whom the witnesses stood, and by whose command they were at length killed. The first is a medal struck by order of Martin V., a.d. 1417. The Roman Bishop is sitting upon a throne, with the Holy Spirit symbolized by a dove, hovering amidst rays over its canopy. Two cardinals, one on each side of him, are crowning him with the tiara, or conical cap with three diadems one above another, and surmounted at the peak by a ball and a cross. On the right of the throne is an altar with a cross upon it, and a light burning on each side of it. Before the altar and throne is a figure upon his knees, his hands lifted up in prayer, and his head thrown back in devout contemplation of the pope. Opposite to this representative of the multitude, are three cardinal princes and electors, who represent the spiritual and sovereign influences by which they were inspired in the election. On the margin, is the inscription "Quem creant adorant Romae." Whom they create they worship at Rome. Another medal was struck by Calixtus III., a.d. 1456. Upon a knoll stands a cross with a tiara above it, and rays of spirit shed upon it. Behind the mound, intended to represent Calvary, is the open sea, studded with sailing craft, and a mountain peering up above the horizon, symbolical of the governments of the world. In this symbolism, the Pope appears as Christ's substitute, or vicar. Jesus had all the sufferings; the Pope claims all the glory. The legend of this medal shows this -- "Omnes Reges servient ei" -- All Kings shall serve him; that is, the Pope! A third is a medal struck by Clement VII., a.d. 1525, commemorative of his opening of heaven at the jubilee. On the right is a doorway that had been walled up for the occasion. Standing before the wall is the Roman God with a pickaxe hard at work demolishing the walls, which is represented as about a third open, and the rubbish piled up at his feet. Above him in the air, and sitting upon a cloud with a key in his hand about the size of the pick, is Peter before the gate of heaven, which is unobscured by cloud in proportion to the opening in the gate below. The relation between the two gates is shown by a parallellogram of rays from Peter's opening to the Pope's. Behind the divine pickman are five waiting figures upon their knees, representative of the multitude, who have friends in purgatory. They are watching for the entire demolition of the wall, as the sign that Peter will have then finished his job above; and his door in heaven being wide open (and if the God below had not picked out his door, Peter's would have never been opened at all) their suffering friends will pass through it, out of the scorching flames into the refreshing coolness of paradise! The legend of this medal is "Et Portae Coeli apertae sunt" -- And the gates of heaven are opened. A fourth medal struck by Alexander VII., a.d. 1655, represents the Roman God creating God out of bread for the people to worship, and then to eat. Upon a sedia gestatoria, or chair of state borne on clerical shoulders, the Pope is represented as kneeling before his breaden god, which he holds up to public gaze in a pyx, or small box, mounted on a stand. Above him is a canopy decorated with crosses, keys, and tiaras; and on either side of the sedia are priests bearing wide-expanded flabelli, or fans of peacocks' feathers, mounted on staves, so as to flank the pope from his shoulders upwards, and considerably above his head. The eyes of the fans signify the innumerable eyes of the Cherubim; so that the Roman God, while kneeling upon his sedia, is "dwelling between the Cherubim!" Surely blasphemy like this cannot be surpassed. The rest of the medal shows a crowd of worshippers, whose superstition is expressed in the legend, "Procidamus et adoremus in Spiritu et veritate" -- We fall prostrate and adore in spirit and in truth! A fifth medal also by Alexander VII., a.d. 1655, illustrates the asserted power of the Vice-Christ over the so-called "spirit-world." He is represented sitting upon a judgment seat with his cardinals on his right and left sitting in double rows, with an open space before them; across which is a bar in the foreground. Over the canopy of his throne is the symbol of the Spirit, the dove with expanded wings, and surrounded with rays and angel-heads. The legend informs us, that the matter before this divine consistory is an inquiry for reckoning Bishop Francis among the saints -- "Blato Francisco Episcopo inter sanctos relato." A sixth medal by Gregory XV., a.d. 1622, commemorates his award of heaven to five of the dead, and their apotheosis. The tiaraed god is sitting upon his throne, with a book of judgment supported upon the head of a figure kneeling before him, in which he is about to sign the decree of canonization. On the left, and above the group of attendants, are opened clouds between which is the dove, from which rays of light descend towards the book, indicating divine approval. Around the whole is the legend, "Quinque Beatis Caelestes Honores decernit" -- He decrees celestial honors to five Blessed Ones. In a seventh medal, struck by order of Clement X., a.d. 1670, is a group of five figures, four men and one woman, kneeling, standing, and sitting upon a cloud, with the dove shedding his rays upon them from above. Each has a halo of glory round the head. The figures are symbolical the daemonials, or ghosts, of a king, a cardinal, a pope, a priest, and a matron, as indicated by a crown, a hat, a tiara, a crucifix, and a babe. The central figure, the cardinal, has a book in one hand, and a pen in the other, symbolical of their admission among the gods of the catholic aerial, being consequent upon the decree of the God upon the earth below! This is expressed in the legend, "Decor ejus Gloria Sanctorum" -- His grace the glory of the saints! 3. "The God of the Earth" and "the Antichrist" Identical Thus, in this eleventh chapter, two Deities are presented to view; the one living and true Deity, styled in the C.V., "the God of Heaven," and his counterfeit and rival, called "the God of the Earth." This is the Antichrist -- ho antichristos. The preposition anti in composition has the force of instead, equal to, like, corresponding to, counter, against, &c. In the word antichrist, which is not a classical word, but one especially coined by inspiration, it signifies An Anointed One substituted for the Anointed One; and therefore an usurper of the rights of the true. This is certainly a hostile position for one to hold, and puts him in antagonism to Christ. But an enemy to Christ is not the force of the word. It signifies, as Mr. Elliott contends in his note upon antipope, one occupying the true Christ's place, receiving his honors, and exercising his functions. The germ which in after ages was fully developed into the Antichrist was the denying the Father and the Son (1 John 2:22). This denial was in the sense of not confessing that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh (2 John 7). All who held this damnable tradition (which in our time is an article of "orthodoxy" so called) forsook the fellowship of the apostles, and were thus manifested as antichrists. "Ye have heard," says John, "that The Antichrist comes; even now are there many antichrists. They went out from us, but they were not of us." These were "false prophets," spirits, or teachers, whose doctrine was "that of the Antichrist that should come; and even now already," says John, "is in the world" (1 John 4:3). They confessed not, that he whom they called Jesus Christ was a man in the flesh common to all mankind, which is sarx amartias, Sin's flesh (Rom. 8:3). They maintained that he had another kind of flesh, which was pure, holy, and immaculate. They confounded his immaculate, or spotless, character, with his maculate flesh. This was a fatal heresy; for if Jesus was not crucified in the flesh common to us all, then "sin was" not "condemned in the flesh," as all the apostles taught; and there has been as yet no sacrifice for sin, and consequently there are no means of remission of sins extant. This immaculate nature of Jesus was the germ of the Catholic Apostasy headed up in the Antichrist, or Deity of the Earth. All who taught the dogma were the founders of a New Religion, and became its "Fathers;" and all who received their traditions became, with them, the Mystical Body of Antichrist, whose Head is the Deity of the Earth. The immaculate nature of Jesus, however, involved "the Fathers," and their "Father of the Fathers" -- pater pateron -- in the necessity of transforming the mother of Jesus into an immaculate virgin-goddess -- immaculate in her conception, and therefore not of the common flesh of Jewish nature. The Deity of the Apostasy was bound to decree this to avoid the inconvenient questions, "Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean?" (Job 14:4); and, "How can he be clean that is born of woman?" (Job 25:4). Job says, "Not one" can do this. But this paragon of patience knew nothing of the Pope! He undertook to accomplish Job's impossibility; for nothing is impossible with the Great Blasphemer of the Deity of the Heaven!! He decreed that the woman Mary was of clean and holy flesh; and therefore the thing born of her was "a thing" -- spotless flesh untainted of Adam's sin, though eph, ho pantes emarton, in him all sinned, which an unsophisticated mind would suppose included all liable to death; Eli, Mary, her mother, and Jesus all died, and must necessarily have been included federally in Adam. But these considerations are no difficulty with the Chief Sorcerer of "Christendom." His magic wand, "thus I decree," transforms all lies into divine truths, and the grossest absurdities into the sublimest and most adorable mysteries! Thus, then, "the Antichrist" is the imperial and pontifical incarnation of immaculate-conceptionism; ideally conceived in apostolic times; personally enthroned a.d. 604-8; and culminating in the pontificate of Leo X., a.d. 1513-21. The blasphemies of the Antichrist, the Eyes and Mouth of the Beast of the Abyss (ch. 13:1) attained the most audacious phase of their profanity in his reign; and from the intense disgust they created even in the monkish mind, became the occasion of the renowned Antipapal Rebellionled off by the Augustinian monk of Erfurt. At this crisis, there was no impiety this Lion-Mouth forebore to utter. His pretensions were as high as heaven; his moral degradation, deep as "the lowest hell." His assumption of divine honors, as the Christ-Impersonation, is symbolized in a pontifical medal, on the reverse of which is a lion with his right foot resting on the globe, representing the pope, who assumed the name of Lion X., being crowned by an angel; with the legend, or utterance of the angel, "Vicit Leo de Tribu Iudae" -- The Lion of the Tribe of Judah has conquered. pope leo x. As the lion of the tribe of judah. Such is the Antichrist, once a formidable power in all Antichristendom by which he was worshipped; but now, as the phrase is "standing upon his last legs," a bye-word and a scorn to millions. But, although the lines of his temporality are contracted almost to the limits of "the Seven Mountains," his divine attributes are acknowledged by many nations, and peoples, crazed and intoxicated by the wine administered to them by the spiritual knaves who are devoted to his will. Respect for this deified impropriator of the attributes of "the Father and the Son," is, however, not wholly confined to papists. The governments of Protestant peoples send their representatives to his court; and subsidize his emissaries in their states. Their schools are patronized by pious sinners of "orthodox" antipapal "abominations;" who, being profoundly ignorant of the history of "the God," or not believing its testimony, entrust the formation of their children's minds to his spirituals, whose intoxicating superstition and blasphemy inscribe "his mark in their foreheads," and prepare them for drinking the wrath of God in the outpouring of his indignation (Apoc. 14:9, 10). Many calling themselves protestants recognize the popes, cardinals, bishops, priests, and such like, as christians; and the church over which they preside as a true one, and the Mother of all others. In such a recognition is abundant proof, that they do not know what constitutes a christian; and that, consequently, they have no scriptural claim to the name themselves. The church of the Antichrist is undoubtedly the mother of all protestant churches. This I would in no wise dispute; for their dogmas are all stained with the "great things and blasphemies" of his mouth. The fathers of protestantism, in a qualified sense benefactors, were but the rebellious servants of the Antichrist, who revolted from his authority, but held on to many of his traditions. While they rejected Antichrist they did not submit to Christ; but allied themselves with sinful princes and governors of the court. The papal scheme of salvation was through penances and works of merit; the Lutheran and its fellows, "justification by faith Alone." These two schemes divide the Court of the Gentiles. They are both equally false; and therefore, neither of them "the power of god for the salvation of them that believe." The principle of the Spirit's witnessing prophets, is "justification through the One Faith." This "One Faith" is proposed for faith, which, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone" (James 2:17). To the one faith belongs "the law of faith," which excludes all boasting; and where law is, obedience is required (Rom. 3:27). The one faith was intrusted to the apostles that they might go forth, and publish it "for obedience to the faith for his name among all nations" (Rom. 1:5; 16:26). All who received the one faith, and yielded the obedience it demands, "believed the things concerning the kingdom of the Deity, and of the name of Jesus Christ; and were immersed into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, for repentance and the remission of sins (Acts 8:12; 2:38; Matt. 28:19). The firm of Luther, Calvin, Knox, Cranmer and Company, knew nothing of this; yet they were highly useful in their day. They were Satan casting out Satan, whereby his kingdom was greatly weakened. They fought their master with his own weapons, and prevailed and became the founders of Harlot-Superstitions, which flourished in power and worldly glory, while the Spirit's Witnesses were lying dead and unburied in the breadth of the Great City, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified" (ch. 11:6, 9). In this breadth, plateia, they still flourish in all pomps and vanities of sin and folly. They are useful antagonists to the power of the Antichrist, while they are themselves but antichristian fellowships inimical to the truth. But, the Deity of the heaven, in his providence, educes good out of evil to his saints, "for whose sake are all things." The antagonisms of Satan so neutralize his power, that his Deity in Chief can no longer torment them unto death. So shorn is he of his glory, that though still upon his throne, and wearing the pontifical mitre and the imperial tiara, his divine bombast is a bursted bubble, and he stands before the world "the False Prophet of the Beast" (ch. 16:13; 19:20); and unconsciously waiting with the beast, until the expiration of the "forty and two months ;" when the Lord Jesus Christ, whom he has burlesqued and blasphemed; and the saints whom he has murdered, shall pay him in his own coin; and utterly destroy him in the brightness of their manifestation. 4. How the Two Prophets Destroyed their Enemies Before this Deity of the earth, while in the plenitude of his power, the Spirit's witnessing prophets had to stand in all the breadth of his dominion. The One Body and the Earth that helped it were the Mordecai in the gate, who, in all the west, refused to salute him and to do him honor. But the time was at length approaching when their mission for a while would be fulfilled; and a substitute would be found for them in their testimony against the Antichrist, though not in their exhibition of the engrafted word for salvation, in the antipapal rebellion soon to blaze forth. As I have shown, their mission was warlike as well as doctrinal. In the prophecy, what "the earth" executed as the minister of divine wrath, both were said to do; unless we understand the plural to refer to the multitude of which "the Earth" was composed. "If any will to injure them" -- if any power undertake to fall upon them with the sword -- "fire burst forth out of their mouth and devours their enemies; and if any wills to injure them, thus must he be put to death." This is prophetic of the wars that would be waged against the forces raised by the antichrist for their extermination. The Deity of the heaven did not require the members of the One Body to stand and be murdered by their enemies without help. If persecuted in one city they were to fly to another; but "the Earth," not believing in non-resistance and passive obedience to ecclesiastical tyranny, stood their ground, and devoured their enemies, after the introduction of gunpowder in war, at the cannon's mouth. In this way "the Earth" performed their part. This was their mode of prophesying against the Antichrist; which, "in all their days of the prophecy," was very effective in the preservation of civil and religious liberty, and the rights of man; and in perpetuating them to succeeding generations. Moreover, being not without political organization under their Counts, they were enabled to exercise a will in these matters. They could will to make war upon their enemies at pleasure; and, in so doing, they had "power to shut the" antichristian "heaven, that rain might not fall in their days of the prophecy." I say, the antichristian heaven -- the heaven of Antichrist's inhabitation; the heaven in which "the God of the earth" dwells, under the whole of which "the Earth" and the "Holy City" stood while testifying or prophesying against him. To shut up any sort of heaven that rain might not descend upon those who lived under it, is figurative of divine wrath upon the sufferers. This appears from Deut. 11:17 -- "And Yahweh's wrath be kindled against you, and he shut up the heaven that there be no rain." This shutting up was the effect of divine displeasure. The shutting up of a heaven is never significative of blessing upon any people, but always of calamity of some sort. The genial, refreshing and fertilizing character of the administration of human affairs by the Mystical Christ -- Jesus and his Brethren -- is compared to an opened heaven from which rain descends in gentle showers upon the grass newly mown: as, "There shall be a ruler over mankind, a Just One, ruling in the righteous precepts of Elohim. And as the brightness of morning, He shall rise the Sun of an unclouded dawn shining forth after rain upon tender grass out of the earth" (2 Sam. 23:4); and, "He shall descend like rain upon the mown grass; as showers that water the earth." The meaning of which is, that "In his days shall the righteous flourish; and abundance of peace so long as the moon endureth" (Psa. 72:6, 7). But, when the heaven is shut, the reverse of this obtains -- the righteous do not flourish, but are "in sackcloth;" and there is no peace. Thus, by way of illustration, while I now write, the atheistic abolition faction is prophesying against their brethren in Antichrist dwelling in the South. Until the day of their own judgment comes, "they have power to shut the heaven that rain fall not in their days of prophesying," neither upon themselves nor upon their enemies. In other words, while they have the ability to carry death and desolation to the hearths and altars of their coreligionists, they prevent the righteous flourishing, and peace descending with its blessings upon the people. Hence, this infidel faction is the Deity's scourge upon communities of religionists, who corrupt his way, and make void his word by their traditions. The faction is Itself a compound of "abominations of the earth" -- an aggregation of pious and profane infidels, being choris christou and atheoi en to kosmo, without Christ and atheists in the world (Eph. 2:12). Hence, they are fit only for a providential work of blood; in which, while they are blindly executing vengeance for him, they are preparing disaster and ruin by which they will be themselves submerged into "the lowest hell" -- sheol tachtiyah (Psa. 86:13; 9:17). As delighting in carnage and desolation, they must be scattered, and all their knavish devilry confused; for so the Spirit taught the Psalmist to pray -- "Scatter thou the people that delight in war" (Psa. 68:30). But, his witnessing prophets of the Holy City do not delight in war. The Earth that helps them only draws the sword to "turn the waters into blood, and to smite the earth with the plagues" of war, when the rulers of those waters, or "peoples and multitudes and nations and tongues," will to deprive them of civil and religious liberty and the rights of men. Hence, these rulers in the anti-christian heaven bring the evils of war upon themselves. But, it must be noted, that civil and religious liberty and rights are only sacred in the sight of heaven when it is the liberty and rights of his people that are in question. He has granted a dispensation to no set of men to worship him "according to the dictates of their own conscience". This is a liberty and right that he has granted to none. All that he has granted is liberty to enter his august presence, and to do him worship according to the dictates of his word. All else is mere "will-worship and voluntary humility," of which he has recorded his contempt (Col. 2:18, 23), This is the character of the worship offered by the State Harlots and Dissenting Abominations of their Great Mother. They are worships according to their unpurified, and therefore evil, consciences; for none of them are to be found in the living word of the Deity of the heaven. All of them, therefore, being of this category or order of things, they are an offence to him, as offerings superseding his appointments, and which he has not required at their hands. Such worshippers as these are the worshippers of the unmeasured or excommunicated court; the worshippers of the Beast and of his Image, and the mark of whose name is indelibly impressed in their foreheads. To such he had granted neither liberty nor rights. The liberty he grants is the freedom with which the truth makes free (John 8:32, 36); perfect law of liberty, into which whoso 1ooketh narrowly and continueth therein, not being a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, shall be blessed in his deed (James 1:25). This is the only true liberty, to which none have any right save those who repudiate the worships of the Court, and become the adopted freemen of the Holy City. But, while all others, not of the Earth and the Holy City, are mere liberty-brawlers, "promising liberty to others, while they are themselves the slaves of corruption," the Deity of the heaven has granted the right to none to forbid men adopting any worship they please. In this negative sense, the rights of all men are in themselves a common birthright. Hence, the Antichrist has no divine right to compel all men to be papists; nor have the State Harlots such a right, though they often experimented in that direction even to the shedding of blood. The right exercised by the Antichrist he derived from the Dragon Imperiality of the East, styled by Daniel the Little Horn of the Goat; a right afterwards recognized by that other Little Horn, which came up in the midst of, and after, the Ten Horns of the European Commonwealth. "The Dragon gave him his power, and his throne, and great authority" (Apoc. 13:2); and it is by virtue of this, which is mere right based upon might, the right of brute force, that "the Devil and his Angels" -- Antichrist and the Sin-Powers of the Court -- have sought to force men, thus given into their hands, to worship what they call God according to their dictates. Now, it is in opposition to this blasphemous assumption, and in the negative sense already defined, that the witnessing prophets of the Deity of the heaven, champion civil and religious liberty and the rights of man. The enemies of these are their enemies; for if the spiritual and temporal SinPowers were to deprive society of these, their testimony or prophesying would inevitably be suppressed also. The conflict, therefore, which raged for ages in the Court of the Gentiles was one of life or death to the witnessing existence of the One Body, and the defensive self-devotion of the Earth. This conflict of ages was long and bloody for all concerned. The saints of the Holy City fell by thousands under the savage and merciless hand of the Roman God. His Spouse of Babylon became red and drunk with their blood, which, like the righteous Abel's, still cries for vengeance upon the ruthless harlot that sits upon the beast (Apoc. 17:3). The Earth valiantly helped her, but could not destroy the murderess. It gave her papistic myrmidons frequent and signal overthrows. It gave them blood to drink, and smote them with the plagues of war; so that, if they were determined to trample the Holy City of the Faith, they should not be permitted so to do with impunity. But in process of time their power of resistance was diminished. This was attributable to the testimony of the One Body being enfeebled by the admixture of traditions which had crept in, and, in so far, rendered it ineffectual. The pastors, whose business it was to keep the lightstand well supplied with golden olive oil of truth, were deteriorating in faithfulness and aptitude for teaching. Hence, the light grew dim and smoky, and men did not see their way as in former years. In consequence of this enfeebled perception, their christian virtue became too easy and tolerant of the traditions of the apostasy, until at length their individuality converged towards, and was finally lost in, the indefiniteness and confusion of the Lutheran and Calvinistic novelties of the sixteenth century. This fatal termination of their labors is styled in the prophecy, the finishing of their testimony. Their word having lost its power, the energy of their ancient helper, the Earth, was enfeebled likewise. When men's hold upon principles is relaxed, they lack that enterprize and force which is necessary for their preservation in this evil world. A worldly and "charitable" spirit generates indifference, by which the pointedness and sharpness of the truth are destroyed. The word handled in a worldly spirit is always "charitable" or tolerant of traditions, which make it of none effect. The word being ministered thus, the power of energetic resistance, and of a bold and valiant advocacy of their ancient principles, was wanting, and deprived both classes of witnesses of their efficiency. Hence, the spirit had no longer any use for them; for the protestantized testimony they were now only able to give, was not of that brightness necessary to constitute them the Golden Oil Light of the world. Men may testify against the Roman Antichrist, and denounce both him and his co-religionists as idolators, which is unquestionably true; but such a testimony leaves the Court as much in the dark as to what must be believed and done for remission of sins, and for obtaining a right to eternal life, as though nothing had been said. This is Protestantism. Its protests truly, that the pope is a blasphemous impersonation of the Christ; but it cannot delineate Christ Jesus according to the prophetic and apostolic testimony. It is, therefore, simply a negation; it denies every thing, but can scripturally affirm nothing. Such a witness as this is of no account in the premises; its doctrine and institutions are devoid of all power for the salvation of the soul. III. Concerning the Time during which the Witnesses Prophesy in Sackcloths "And I will give to my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and sixty days, having been clothed in sackcloths." I have shown elsewhere that Daniel's "time and times and the dividing of a time," and John's "forty and two months," are the same measurement; and both relating to the same subject -- the Saints as the Holy City; and both terminating at the same crisis -- the resurrection at the advent of the Ancient of Days; and both constituted of 1260 years. And here we have immediately following, a repetition of the same duration. In the third verse, the Holy City is consigned to a trampling of forty and two months; and in the fourth, the Witnesses are to prophesy in tribulation 1260 days. It will, of course, strike the reader as remarkable, that a coequal length of years should be prefigured in different terms. But the reason is, that the two periods relate to different subjects, and are not coterminal. The trampling of the Holy City was one thing, and its prophesying in sackcloth was another. These two series of events were not to be parallel in the whole of their course; so to prevent confusion, the two periods of equal duration were stated in different terms. As the Holy City was to be trampled forty and two months by the Gentiles; and as these were to trample it under the inspiration of the Antichristian Mouth of the Beast, the power given him for this purpose by the Dragon-Emperor was to be operative for the same length of time, which, in order to show this relation between the Mouth and the Holy City, is also expressed by the same formula of "forty and two months" (Apoc. 13:5). And, for a somewhat similar reason, that is, to connect the sackcloth witnessing of the Holy City community with the fugitive woman and the earth that protected her by its help (Apoc. 12:6, 16), the things affirmed of the woman in relation to her feeding are expressed in the same kind of time as the duration of the witnessing -- 1260 days; and, furthermore, to show that 1260 symbolic days are equivalent to "a time and times and the dividing of a time" (a formula which occurs nowhere else in the Apocalypse, and pertains exclusively to the measurement of the Holy City) the 1260-feeding of the woman by the earth, in the fourteenth verse of the twelfth chapter, is styled her nourishing "for a time and times and half a time;" for to feed and nourish her are the same idea; so that the one statement of the duration of her feeding, is expository of the duration of her nourishing. This view of the matter which I believe is the only correct one, helps us greatly in determining the commencement of the saints witnessing after the sackclothes had been put upon them by their enemies. This beginning carries us back to the epoch of the Woman's flight into the wilderness, or two wings of the Great Roman Eagle. Her flight, by which she turned her back with contempt upon the honors and riches of the world; which she left to the leaders of the Catholic Apostasy -- the Eusebiuses, Lactantiuses, Ariuses, Athanasiuses, and Chrysostoms of the day -- her fugitive separation from these, by which she became a witness for the truth against their worldliness and traditions, occurs after the birth of the Man-Child of Sin -- that sanguinary Cain, who, as the Antichrist, in the power of his manhood and impiety, afterwards slew the Abel of the Faith, whose blood cries for vengeance against him from the ground. The birth of this imperial child of the woman occurred in the enthronement of Constantine in Rome on his defeat of Maxentius at the battle of Saxa Rubra, a.d. 312. This introduced a remarkable epoch in the history of the woman, to be more particularly considered in my exposition of the twelfth chapter. It will be sufficient to remark here, that this was the epoch of her deliverance from pagan persecution by the celebrated edict of Constantine published at Milan, a.d. 313; and of her introduction to an acquaintance with the worse than pagan persecution, which sought to exterminate her in the after years of Catholic ascendancy. Constantine delighted to style himself "the Deliverer of the Church." He was truly the deliverer of the Catholic Church; but he was also the first to inflict persecution and death itself upon those, "who kept the commandments of the Deity, and retained the testimony of Jesus Christ." The edict of Milan, the great charter of toleration, had confirmed to each individual of the Roman world, the privilege of choosing and professing his own religion. But this inestimable privilege was soon violated; with a smattering of truth, the woman's child imbibed the maxims of persecution, and the Dissenters from the Catholic Church were afflicted and oppressed by its political triumph over Paganism. Constantine easily credited the insinuation that the Heretics, as they were called, who presumed to dispute his opinions, or to oppose his commands, were guilty of the most absurd and criminal obstinacy; and that a seasonable application of moderate severities might save those unhappy men from the danger of an everlasting condemnation. Confounded with these so called Heretics, as has been the case in all ages since, were those who held the testimony, and therefore, the witness of Jesus. Not a moment was lost in excluding their pastors and teachers from any share in the rewards and immunities Constantine had so liberally bestowed on the Catholic Spirituals. But, as the Dissenters might still exist under the cloud of imperial disfavor, the conquest of the East was immediately followed by an edict which announced their total destruction. After a preamble filled with passion and reproach, he absolutely prohibits the assemblies of "Heretics," and confiscates their public property to the use, either of the revenue, or of the Catholic Church. Some of the penal regulations were copied from the edicts of the pagan emperor Diocletian; and this method of conversion was applauded by the same bishops who had felt the hand of oppression, and pleaded for the rights of humanity. But Constantine was not the only oppressor whose tyranny bore heavily upon the woman. His imperial colleague, Licinius, also within the limits of his jurisdiction, made her to groan with anguish. "Those who had done no evil," says Eusebius, "were led away to punishment without any pretext, just like murderers and assassins. Some also endured a novel kind of death, having their bodies cut into many small pieces, and after this savage and terrible spectacle, were thrown as food to the fishes into the depths of the sea. Again the worshippers of God began to flee; again the open fields, the deserts, forests, and mountains, received the servants of Christ." The fleeing of the woman was the reduction of her to a state of humiliation and tribulation, far removed from the exaltation and haughtiness characteristic of the region of imperial grace. The gates of this clerical paradise were closed against her. She has nothing to do with emperors and courts. These are only for the votaries of fashion, and parasitic spirituals, who hold the persons of rulers in admiration for the sake of gain. Bishops, cardinals, archbishops, and other princes of the church, flourish in regions of imperial sunshine; but for the woman and her seed, the farther off they flee from such a heavenly, the clearer will they see the truth, and the better able will they be to "keep the commandments of the Deity," and to testify with the approval of Jesus Christ. Thus, then, the woman in flight is related both to state and place. She fled because she was persecuted by "the angels of the Dragon" -- officials in power, both imperial and magisterial. The interval from the birth of her child, a.d. 312, to the conquest of the East by the overthrow of Licinius, a.d. 324, was occupied in ecclesiastical legislation in favour of the Catholic Church, and against Dissenters; and in carrying off her son unto deity, and the throne thereof. Here was an epoch of twelve years. At the end of this, that is, a.d. 325, he sat as a god, a presidential episcopal god, in the Council of Nice, exhibiting before the world the type of that full grown Man of Sin, who should be worshipped by all the nations of the unmeasured Court as "the Deity of the earth." Now, it was at some point in this epoch of twelve years, that the 1260 years of witnessing began. As the woman's seed in their sackcloth witnessing were to "stand before the deity of the earth" in the sense of testifying against him, it is reasonable to refer the commencement of the witnessing period to the time of the formation of an issue between him and them. Let us then see what is the state of the case bearing upon this result. The complaints and mutual accusations which assailed the throne of Constantine, as soon as the death of Maxentius, a.d. 312, had brought the Roman Africa into subjection to his victorious arms, were ill adapted to edify an imperfect proselyte. He learned with surprise, that the provinces of Africa, from the confines of Cyrene to the columns of Hercules, were distracted with religious discord. The cause of dissension, for the most part, ceases to characterize religious disputes after the fervor of the onset subsides. This is proved in numberless instances. It is so in the case before us; for though the election of two rival bishops fanned the latent heat into a flame, the cause of the Great Secession which was about to ensue, must be sought for in the deep rooted affection of "the faithful" for the Ancient Gospel and Apostolic Traditions. In the second of Acts, Luke informs us, that on the Day of Pentecost there were Jews from "Egypt, and the parts of Africa, which are about Cyrene." Many of these, no doubt, obeyed the gospel preached by Peter, and carried it to their adopted homes, where they would persuade others to embrace the faith of Jesus Christ. The churches thus formed in these parts, secluded from the theatre, and inducements of the ecclesiastical discord and ambition, would be more likely to "retain the testimony of Jesus Christ," than the churches of those princely bishops, which had transferred their devotion from apostolic to worldly objects. The disciples in the country could not but grieve at the apostasy and corruption of the church in the cities, which would be equally deplored by the "few names which had not defiled their garments" in these assemblies. But corruption may be lamented by the few, and yet continued by the many, unless some incident transpire, often trivial in itself, or some master-spirit arise to unfurl the standard, and rally around it the friends of christian purity, liberty, and truth. Such, I apprehend, was the state of things in the Roman Africa, Italy, and Gaul, at the time we are now considering. The church in Carthage, the metropolis of the Roman Africa, and the second ecclesiastical throne of the Roman West, was the occasion of the dispute which involved the province in the most calamitous convulsions. Mensurius, the bishop of the church, having died in a.d. 311, the majority of the people chose the chief deacon Caecilianus to succeed him. In these times of Laodicean corruption and apostasy it is not to be supposed, that because the majority elected him, he was therefore best qualified for the "good work" of which Paul treats in 1 Tim. 3:1, and Tit. 1:7; nor is it to be taken for granted that because the majority were Laodicean, the minority was all blameless and pure. The ground of their objection to Caecilianus, if true, was certainly just and valid, and honorable to those who made it the occasion of their secession from a church so corrupt and insensible to its christian dignity, as to appoint a man for their episcopal ruler, who had abandoned his brethren under persecution and distress, and had received ordination from an apostate, who had delivered up the Holy Scriptures to be burned. This traditorial archdeacon, Caecilianus, then, had been elected and ordained by a party. His opponents, however, refused to acquiesce in his ordination. By their influence an assembly of bishops was convened, and Caecilianus was cited before them; but, being contumacious, he was condemned as unworthy of the episcopal office. Majorinus, a deacon, was therefore chosen in his place. The charges in their specification were, that Felix, who assisted at his ordination, was a traditor, and therefore disqualified for the service by his apostasy; and that Caecilianus himself was unfit, because of his cruelty to his brethren under persecution, whom, though a deacon, he had abandoned in a merciless manner, leaving them without food in their prisons, and precluding the grant of relief from those who were willing to succor them. These were grave specifications; and, if true, ought to have placed Caecilianus among "heathen men and publicans." A party which could choose and ordain such a spiritual guide must have been as unworthy as their chief. His principal opponent was Donatus, a bishop from Casae Nigrae. The excitement spread through all the African Wing of the Great Eagle, so that there were two opponent parties in every city. In a.d. 313, the Donatists, as they were now called by way of distinguishing them from the Catholics, carried the affair before Constantine at Rome. The principal bishop there, and eighteen others, were appointed by him to settle the dispute. As might have been supposed, judgment was given against the Donatists. In a.d. 314, the case of Felix was brought before the Proconsul of Africa. The Donatists were again in the minority. Seventy African bishops had condemned Caecilianus; nineteen Italian bishops had acquitted him. In a.d. 315, the whole affair was again agitated before a numerous assembly at Arles, in Gaul. The Donatists were again cast. In a.d. 316, Constantine himself examined the case "in sacred consistory," at Milan. But here again their plea was rejected. He deprived them also of their places of worship, sent their bishops into banishment, and punished some of them with death. Caecilianus was now unanimously acknowledged by the civil and ecclesiastical power as the true and lawful primate of Africa. The Donatists protested against the Emperor's sentence as an unrighteous one; and that his credulity had been abused by the insidious arts of his advisers. But they could get no redress from the Man-Child, whose persecuting edicts drove them into exile from the high places of the State. Thus, "the woman fled into the wilderness," where it was appointed for her to remain, testifying in the sackclothes forced upon her, during 1260 years. These trials in Rome, Milan, Arles and Arles, would be well calculated to subserve the interests of the truth. They afforded the Donatists scope for their testimony against the imperialized catholicism in Italy and the South of France. They doubtless dropped their word in these regions copiously; and failed not to enlist many in their protestation against it. "What has the emperor to do with the church? And, what have christians to do with kings, or what have bishops to do at court?" These were their inquiries, which, in the face of scripture, the State Church party found to be both inconvenient and unanswerable. In these countries, there were already many dissenters from catholicism, the Novatians, who were in sympathy with them. The Donatist Trials no doubt infused new life into these, who, co-operating with them would develop the evangelism, which, in our seventh chapter, has been considered under the symbolism of the Sealing Angel of eastern origin (Apoc. 7:2). Thus, this whole proceeding, which, from the first appeal to the final sentence, lasted three years, became an important epoch in the woman's history. "This incident," says Gibbon, "so inconsiderable that it scarcely deserves a place in history, was productive of a memorable schism, which afflicted the provinces of Africa above 300 years, and was extinguished only with christianity itself." The inflexible zeal of freedom animated the Donatists to refuse obedience to the courtly bishops, whose spiritual powers they denied. Excluded themselves from the civil and religious communion of mankind by an edict of banishment, they boldly excommunicated the rest. They asserted with confidence that the Apostolical Succession was interrupted; that all the bishops of Europe and Asia were infected by the contagion of guilt and schism; and that the prerogatives of the universal church were confined to the chosen portion of the African believers, who alone had preserved inviolate the integrity of their faith and discipline. This sounds like the testimony of Jesus Christ in the mouth of his witnesses. Gibbon terms it "a rigid theory," and says "it was supported by the most uncharitable conduct," in his opinion. "Whenever they acquired a proselyte, even from the distant provinces of the East, they carefully repeated the sacred rites of baptism and ordination, as they rejected the validity of those he had already received from the hands of heretics and schismatics." The Novatians before them, and the Waldenses after them, did the same; and so do all those who coincide in faith and practice with the writer of this exposition of the apocalypse. We repudiate the immersion of every one as invalid, who is not, previously to immersion, the enlightened subject of the one faith. Mr. Gibbon would probably regard this "theory" more "rigid" than theirs. We do not, however, accept him, nor our clerical contemporaries of antichristendom, as competent to give a scriptural decision in the case. We know that a man must first believe "the truth as it is in Jesus" before he can obey it. This is as certain as that two and two make four. Being only "christians" of the antichristian type, their preaching, praying, praises, and performances, are but the spiritualism of the unmeasured court -- the outpourings of "the spirit that now works in the children of disobedience." The "divinity" with which they profess to "cure souls" is not therapeutic; and as effective for the transformation of sinners into saints, as the philosopher's stone for the alchemical transmutation of ignoble metals into gold. This being our conviction from an upwards of thirty years study of the word, we have as little respect for their "ripe scholarship" and scholastic traditions, as Paul had for those of the renowned Barjesus; or Christ for "the wise and prudent" of his day. This "uncharitable" exclusiveness, and "bigoted" devotion to the primitive apostolic faith, was the truly christian spirit of the woman and her seed at the epoch which initiated the 1260 years of their sackclothwitnessing against the apostasy. In repudiating all its institutions, the Donatists drank of this spirit, and maintained, as Gibbon confesses, the sentiment of a greater part of the primitive church. Such was their abhorrence of the apostasy, that if they came into possession of a church which had been used by the catholics, they purified the building with the same jealous care which a temple of the old idolatry might have required. The learned du Pin, who is their adversary says: "They did not teach anything that was contrary to the (apostles') creed; but they were so rash as to affirm that all the churches everywhere, which had embraced the communion of Caecilianus and his party, ceased to be the true churches of Jesus Christ; that thus the catholic church was only found among themselves, having ceased to exist in other parts of the world. Besides which, being very fond of the ancient doctrine of the African churches, that baptism and the other sacraments conferred out of the church were null and void, they rebaptized such as had been baptized by the Catholics, trampled upon their eucharist as a profane thing, and maintained that the consecration, unctions, and ordinations performed by the Catholics were of no avail. They burned or scraped the altars which the latter made use of, as being polluted by impure sacrifices, and broke their (communion) cups. They looked upon the vows made in their communion as of no value, in a word, they would not communicate with them. They maintained that the church ought to be made up of just and holy men, or at least of those who were such in appearance; and that, although wicked men might lurk in the church, yet it would not harbor those who were known to be such." This was spuing the apostasy out of their mouth as effectually as the Eternal Spirit threatened to do to the Laodiceans, because of their lukewarmness (Apoc. 3:16). They drew as broad a line between themselves and all other churches, as could possibly have been drawn by any claiming to be the Woman and her seed, and the party allied to imperial power that made her flight into the wilderness necessary to her preservation. Their testimony against the catholic church, whose system of tradition had become in this epoch "the religion of the State" was in strict accordance with that of the Spirit, who denounced it as "wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked." The Donatists testified neither more nor less than this; and their view of what a church ought to be, harmonized with what the Spirit exhorted the Laodiceans to become. I have, therefore, no doubt that the three years' conflict of the Donatists with the party of the Imperial Man-Child was the epoch which truly marks the beginning of the witnessing period of the 1260 years. Here, then, we take our stand, and, with the following extract from Mosheim, conclude, for the present, what we have to say concerning this notable crisis of the fourth century. "The doctrine of the Donatists was conformable to that of the church, as even their adversaries confess; nor were their lives less exemplary than those of other christian societies, if we except the enormous conduct of the Circumcellions, which the greatest part of the sect regarded with the utmost detestation and abhorrence. The crime, therefore, of the Donatists lay properly in the following points: in their declaring the church of Africa, which adhered to Caecilianus, fallen from the dignity and privileges of a true church, and deprived of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, on account of the offences with which the new bishop, and Felix who had consecrated him, were charged; in their pronouncing all the churches, which held communion with that of Africa, corrupt and polluted; in maintaining that the sanctity of their bishops gave their community alone a full right to be considered as the true, and the pure, and the holy church; and in their avoiding all communication with other churches from an apprehension of contracting their impurity and corruption. This erroneous principle was the source of that most shocking uncharitableness and presumption (poor Dr. Mosheim!) which appeared in their conduct to other churches. Hence, they pronounced the sacred rites and institutions void of all virtue and efficacy among those christians who were not precisely of their sentiments; and not only rebaptized those who came over to their party from other churches, but even with respect to those who have been ordained ministers of the gospel, they observed the severe custom, either of depriving them of their office, or obliging them to be ordained a second time." If such only was "the crime" of the persecuted Donatists, had I lived in their day, I should have been guilty of their "shocking uncharitableness and presumption" too. 1. "Their Days of the Prophecy" In the sixth verse of the chapter are the words, en hemerais auton tes proheteias, about which "the recent editors" are at variance with their predecessors. They recommend that it be changed, and translated, "during the days of their prophesying." But, with all due respect to their recencies, I suggest that the words be left alone, and translated, "in their days of the prophecy." The whole apocalypse is "the prophecy;" for so it is termed in ch. 1:3. But the days in which the witnesses stand bearing testimony against "the God fo the Earth," do not extend through all the days of the prophecy. The God of the earth was undeveloped in all those days of the prophecy extending from John's location in Patmos to the birth of the Catholic Woman's Man-child. In all this time, therefore, the witnesses could not stand before him; and, consequently, these years were no part of "their days." And from the finishing of their testimony to their resurrection and ascension, was over two hundred years. These, therefore, were no part of "their days," unless a man can be said to stand in the presence of another, and testify against him while he is dead. it must be evident, then, that the days of the prophecy are of much longer measure than the days of the witnessing against the Antichrist. These days are the 1260, and therefore they are emphatically and specially "their days" -- the protion of time appropriated to teh One Body and its Helper, to contend earnestly for the "one Lord, one faith, and one immersion;" and to testify against the Vice-Christ and his idolatrous institutions. And these "their days" neither begin nor end with the days of the prophecy. They began, as I have shown, in the three years' epoch of a.d. 312-316, and would consequently end a.d. 1572-76; because 1260 + 316 = 157. Thus, their sackloth-witnessing had its beginning and ending, long before the deliverance of the Holy City from its "forty and two months" of subjection to the Gentile governments. The Holy City still exists under Protestant ascendancy, in the lowest stratum of the abyss -- trampled int he dust; but it is nowhere to be found under Catholic ascendancy, witnessing against the Antichrist, and tormenting him and his adherents with their testimony. In all catholic countries the saints have been "prevailed against;" and, though existing in Britain and America to a very limited extent, their witnessing for the truth as originally proclaimed by the apostles, and their testifying against "the spirituals fo the wickedness in" protestant and catholic "high places," and their gospel-nullifying traditions and institutions, commnd but little attention. Sceptical indifference, and profane contempt for "the testimony of Jesus Christ," are the characteristic of the times in which we live. The Holy City has but few citizens left, whose voice is overpowered in the unintelligible babble and confusion of the Great City. They testify, nevertheless, as this exposition of the apocalypse evinces; but their witnessing is not "in sackloth." Since their ascension, their enemies have been restrained from the use of the whips, and chains, and fire, and faggot. These, which used ot be the most powerful arguments against which they had to contend, have been wrested from their destroyers by "the Earth;" so that now they can advocate the truth, and testify against the apostasy, none daring, however willing, to make them afraid. Now, the "forty and two months," measure of the Holy City is bounded by two events -- the giving of the saints into the hand of the Little Horn of the West, for its beginning; and the resurrection, for its ending: os also, the days of its sackcloth-witnessing are placed between the fight of the Woman, of their commencement; and the finishing of her testimony, for their termination. We find this ending indicated in the seventh verse, as, "when they may have finished their testimony, the beast which ascendeth otu of the abyss will make war with them, and overcome them, and put them to death." The beast herein referred to, is that which John saw arise, and describes in chap. 13:1-7. As John saw it arise, it was not extant in his day, but apeared afterwards. It was a new development of powers upon the same territory as that upon which Daniel beheld his fourth beast. It was the ten horns and little horn of this in middle-age manifestation -- the Civil and Ecclesiastical Polity of the Gentiles who trampled the Holy City. The Mouth of this beast represents the same pwoer as the Eyes and Mouth of the Daniel's Little Horn. John says, that the beast's Mouth made war with the saints, and overcame them; and daniel says, "the little horn made war upon the saints, and prevailed against them;" by which, John and Daniel identified the horn and mouth as symbolical of the same power. With such testimony as this before us, we ought to find 1260 years after the Donatist trials in the presence of the Woman's Imperial Manchild, a people specially obnoxious to the ecclesiastical and civil authorities of the nations with whom they were at war, for the purpose of putting them to silence, and suppressing their principles, by the adovcacy of which they were "tormented." We ought to find, too, that the conflict of this people with the powers was not only unsuccessufl, but that it resulted in the death of the cause of civil and religious freedom, and the rights of man, in all the countries of the beast. We are however, not ot suppose that they were not made war upon before the end of the 1260 years; I have shown before that there were frequent wars, in which they smote the earth with plagues as often as they willed. But, this at the end of "their days of the prophecy" was a special war, resulting as no previous wars had hitherto done, namely, in the putting of them to death in the symbolic-sense of the prophecy. This war was to supervene upon their finishing their testimony -- hotan telesosi, "when they may have finished their testimony" for Jesus Christ, and against the antichrist. The testimony concernign the faith was silenced first; afterwards, that against the Antichrist, and for civil and religious freedom. "The Earth" maintained the conflict longest, having been energized by the accession of new life from the antipapal rebellion of the Lutherans and Calvinists. These not being of the Holy City, but advocates of a reformed national system of religion, were prepared to draw the sword against the papal powers ith potent, though not universally subversive results. After a lapse of twelve hundred years, these sturdy combatants arose to disturb the peace, in which the worshippers fo the Roman God were glorifying themselves greatly. They fought valiantly, but did not conquer: and, though in Germnay, Holland, Denmark, sweden, Switzerland, and Britain, they established governments independent of "the God of the earth;" yet, in all the Breadth of the Great City -- epi ies plateias poleos test megales, which is allegorically styled Sodom and Egypt, -- in Rome, Italy, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, the Austrain states and Poland, "the witnesses were overcome and put ot death." In the year 1530, the witnesses had been entirely employed in paying the way for union with the German reformers. Those of them residing in the South of France, did not encounter the enemy with their usual fortitude. they shrunk from the cross, and fell into the practice of feigning acquiescence with the national forms of worship. In the middle of this century also those of them residing in Calabria, coalesced whit the presbyterian church under the pastoral care of the celebrated John Calvin and Theodore Beza at Geneva. The consequence of this was, that several presbyterian ministers of their school settled among the witnesses of Calabria, as pastors of their churches. This was their situation in a.d. 1560. The Calvinists and Lutherans, both princes and divines, claimed fellowship with them; and the claim was unscripturally allowed for, while Swiss and German Protestantism in those days, was a powerful antagonism to popery, it had no affinity in faith and practice to the ancient apostolic religion, of the primitive age. It is an unbaptized speculation, which no true Christadelphian, or Brother of christ can fellowship without incurring the crime of apostasy from the faith. This was the position of the witnessing prophets in a.d. 1576. "Their testimony," with which for 1260 years they had tormented their adversaries, "was finished." "Their days of prophecy" were now expired. They could no longer teach others "the great salvation" by which they might escape the guilt and condemnation of sin unto eternal life in the kingdom of the Deity; and as for protesting against "the God of the earth," the Lutheran and Calvinistic antipapists, with whom they had fraternized, were effective enough for that. Thus, then, having finished their testimony, the impending sentence of conquest and death was about to burst upon them in a dreadful storm of massacre and desolation. Exactly 1260 years form the birth of the Imperial Man-Child of Sin (who, they testified had no more to do with the church, than christians with kings, or their bishops with courts); that is, in the year 1572, the first of a terminal epoch of four years, a dreadful calamity befel them in Paris and other cities of France.This was the celebrated papal massacre of "St. Bartholomew's Day," as the 24th of August is termed by the worshippers of the saints. The murderers ravaged the whole city, and in three days butchered above ten thousand lords, gentlemen, presidents, and people of all ranks. From Parts the massacre spread throughout the whole of France. According to Thuanus, 30,000 persons were destroyed in this massacre; or, as others affirm, 100,000. This was a notable beginning of that war which "the beast ascending out of the abyss" was to wage against them. It burst forth upon them most unexpectedly in that section of the plateia, or breadth, of the Great City, styled in the thirteenth verse, to dekaton, the tenth -- one of the Ten-Horn-Kingdoms of the Beast. I must leave to history the narration of the details of the events of this war between the beast and the wintesses. It will be sufficient to remark that, in the course of it, Richelieu, the cardinal premier of France, was convinced that either the antipapists must be admitted to the full enjoyment of unlimited liberty, and of all the privileges of the state, uncontrolled by catholics, and even at the hazard of the permanent establishment of the catholic faith, or that they must be totally subdued. He preferred the latter; and to accomplish it, turned the whole power of France against them; and succeeded in totally disarming them, leaving them, however, in possession of considerable privileges, civil and religious, guaranteed to them by the Edict of Nantes. In this Tenth of the Papal Breadth they still amounted to over 1,500,000; many of them wealthy merchants, skilful manufacturers, able sailors and soldiers. The question with the Antichrist and his "eldest son" Louis XIV., was, should such a sect be permitted to exist; and whether their power was not now able to subdue it, and extirpate the heresy? The king believed that God had raised him up and prospered him for this very thing. The season seemed to them favorable. There was none of the European States that could protect them. England was weakened by its own discontents. The Emperor of the West was engaged in a war with Turkey. Spain was unable to contend with France. Other states were awed by her power, and however willing to support the Huguenots, dared not to provke so mighty and unrelenting a foe as the Grand Monarque. He was therefore free to essay their conversion to Romish idolatry, or to exterminate them from his kingdom. He accordingly began this great work of putting to death the witnesses by revoking the Edict of Nantes granted by henry IV., April 1, 1598. The revocation was decreed October 23, 1685. It provided, that all their churches should be forthwith demolished; that there should be no meeting for religious worship in any place, on anay pretence; that eveyr kind of religious exercise in the houses or castles of nobility or gentry should be punished with death and confiscation fo property; that all noncatholic ministers should leave the kingdom in fifteen days, or embrace the catholic religion; that all their schools should be absolutely shut up; that their children should be "baptized" by the curates of the parish in which the parents resided, on pain of 500 livres; and that every one attempting to leave the kingdom should be ocndemned to the galleys or death: but, that all who were not decided, or not prepared to declare themselves, until it pleased God to enlighten them, might remain where they resided, continue their trades or arts, and enjoy their property undisturbed, provided they refrained from all exercise of their religion, and from every kidn of meeting on that account. This was puttign them to silence, or killign them as witnesses against Romish idolatry. So long as their months were closed they were unable to testify; os that as witnesses they were literally dead, though not therefore buried. Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day Charles IX with his mother Catherine de Medicis watch the slaughter of their Protestant guests from the balcony of their palace. Catherine de Medicis was the moving power behind the massacre. As a result of it, many Hugeunots fled the country to Great Britain and America only to return to France to play a part in the French Revolution. Below: St. Bartholomew's Day massacres occurred throughout France. The execution of this decree was terrible, and its consequences most deplorable. Many were cruelly tortured and put to death; many were imprisoned or sent to the galleys; dragoons, "the basest troops of the kingdom, fellows that would stick at nothing," were quartered upon them, who insulted and pillaged them, in order to force them to change their religion. Terror and dread marched before them, and the cruelties of 1572 were enacted over again. "Die or be catholics!" was the war-cry of these savages who executed the behests of the Little Horn. M. Claude, in his Short Account, published in 1686, says: "Amidst a thousand hideous lamentations and horrid blasphemies, they hung men and women by the hair of their heads, or by the feet, to the roofs of their chambers; or to the racks in the chimneys, and there smoked them with wisps of wet hay, till they were no longer able to bear it; and when they took them down, if they would not sign, they immediately hung them up again. They plucked off the hair of their heads and beards with pincers, till they left none remaining. "They threw them on great fires kindled on purpose, and did not pull them out till they were half roasted. They plunged them again and again into wells, from whence they would not take them up till they had promised to renounce their religion. They bound them as they do criminals put to the rack, and in this posture,with a funnel poured wine down their throats, till the fumes of it depriving them of reason, they were made to say they were catholics. They stripped them naked, and after having offered them a thousand indignities, they stuck them all over with pins. They lanced them with penknives, and sometimes with red hot pincers took them by the nose, and so dragged them about the room till they promised to turn catholics. They bastinadoed them most cruelly, and then dragged them thus bruised to the churches, where this forced appearance was accounted abjuration. They kept them from sleeping seven or eight days together; they tormented them in a thousand ways. They tied them to bed posts, and ravished their wives and daughters before their eyes. They plucked off the nails from the fingers and toes of some; and blew both men and women up with bellows till they were ready to burst." Such were the infamous dragoonings by which the Earth was subdued and silenced by the beast of the abyss. A million of them are said to have emigrated into other countries; and to have carried with them two hundred millions of money, besides their skill in arts and manufactures. The flame was smothered, but the embers remained, yet again to be fanned into a terrible and consuming conflagration. But for the present they were prostrated, as "corpses upon the breadth of the Great City spiritually styled Sodom and Egypt." Such, then, was the war by which they were overcome and put to death. It continued with intermissions during a period of a hundred and thirteen years from a.d. 1572. But although their testimony was silenced, and they were as dead "among the peoples, and tribes, and tongues, and nations," upon which the Great Harlot sits in reeling instability, "drunk with the blood of the saints and with the blood of the witnesses of Jesus" -- their inanimate polities did not suffer dissolution. Their corpses remained entire. Communities of them still were seen in "the breadth of the Great City" awaiting "spirit of life from the Deity" to break in upon them for their resuscitation. Methods used by the Inquisition to extract confessions. Left: Prickers used to find the Devil's mark -- the patch on the skin insensitive to pain. The one in the centre has a retractable blade to find socalled proof of guilt. Right: The strappado. The accused, often nuked, had heavy weights tied to his or her feet and was then hoisted into the air. The Medal struck by Pope Gregory XIII in 1572 to commemorate the massacre of the French Huguenots on "St. Bartholomew's Day". The slayer holds the Crucifix in one hand and the drawn sword to kill in the other. The words Hugonotorum Strages signifies "Slaughter of the Huguenots". Thus did Rome "rejoice over them, and make merry, and send gifts one to another" (Rev. 11:10). 2. Rome Rejoices at their Slaughter The massacre with which they were overwhelmed at the outbreak of the war against them in 1572, and which was then supposed to have entirely ruined them, when known in Rome was a cause of great joy to their enemies in that city. When the letters of the Pope's legate residing at the Court of Charles IX., were read in the assembly of the cardinals, by which he assured the Pope that all was transacted by the express will and command of the French king, it was immediately decreed that the pope should march with his cardinals to the church of St. Mark, and in the most solemn manner give thanks to God for so great a blessing conferred on the See of Rome and the "Christian World;" and that on the Monday after, solemn mass should be celebrated in the church of Minerva, at which Gregory XIII., and the cardinals were present; and that a jubilee should be published throughout the whole of "Christendom," and the cause of it declared to be, to return thanks to God for the extirpation of the enemies of the truth and the church in France. In the evening, the cannon of St. Angelo were fired to testify the public joy; the whole city illuminated with bonfires; and no one sign of rejoicing omitted that was usually made for the greatest victories obtained in favor of the Roman church. In addition to this medals were struck commemorative of the joyous event. A copy of it is before me in Elliott's work, taken from Sir. W. Cockburn's work on the Massacre. It is about two inches and five eighths diameter. On one face is the bust of the Roman deity, Gregory XIII.; and on the obverse a winged angel with an uplifted cross in the left hand, and a drawn two edged sword in the right, symbolizing the papal destroyers of "the earth" in France. Men, women, and children are before the angel dead, dying, falling, and about to fall by his sword; while in the background is a woman, with uplifted arms supporting a mantle, and looking complacently upon the massacre, symbolizing the Catholic church. On the margin is the legend, "Ugonottorum Strages, 1572" -- The Massacre of the Hugonots, 1572. These medals were for free distribution to one another commemorative of the death blow inflicted upon the hitherto unconquered enemies of the catholic idolatry. Thus was fulfilled the tenth verse of this eleventh chapter, saying, "They that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them and make merry, and shall send gifts (of medals) one to another, because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt upon the earth." The conquest and symbolic death of the witnessing prophets, then, was illustrated by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Oct. 23, a.d. 1685. This was the conviction of the whole anti-papal world at the time. The poor sufferers in France especially who survived, were of opinion that these unequalled persecutions were the slaying of the witnesses; and they were, therefore, in high expectation looking for the end of the TIME PERIOD OF THE WITNESSES (REV. 11) a.d. 312 -- Controversy between Donatists and Church, and commencement of persecution. Witnessing in sackcloth (mourning) commences. 1260 -- Forty-two months of Witnessing in persecution. 1572 -- Massacre of St. Bartholomew -- commencement of the war of v. 7. 1598 -- Edict of Nantes: measure of success to the witnesses: privileges granted them. 1685 -- Revocation of the Edict Nantes -- Death of the Witnesses 105 -- Rome celebrates the death of the witnesses (a lunar 3 1/2 days, v. 9, representing 105 normal days) during which the bodies lie in the street of the city. 1790 -- The French Revolution: the political revival of the witnesses. Publ "three days and a half," during which they were to continue politically dead, though not buried, or excluded from the observation of their merciless destroyers. Peter Jurieu, a Hugonot pastor, whose work, entitled, "The Accomplishment of the Scripture Prophecies," was published in English two years after the Revocation, 178 years ago, treating on the Resurrection of the Witnesses; the Fall of the Tenth of the City; and so forth, says: "It is a truth which must be held as certain (being one of the keys of the Revelation) that the City, the Great City, signifies, in this book, not Rome alone, but Rome in conjunction with its empire; the name of this great city is Babylon." "This being supposed and proved, that the city is the whole Babylonish and Antichristian empire, it must be remembered, that this empire of Antichrist is made up of Ten Kingdoms, and of ten kings, who must give their power to the beast. A tenth of the city fell, i.e., one of these ten kingdoms which make up the Great City, the Babylonish empire, shall forsake it." "Now, what is this Tenth of the city which shall fall? In my opinion we cannot doubt that it is France". The "kings who yet remain under the empire of Rome must break with her, leave her solitary and desolate. But who must begin this last revolt? It is most probable that France shall." "Seeing the tenth of the city which must fall is France, this gives me some hopes that the death of the two witnesses hath a particular relation to this kingdom. It is the street, or place of this City, i.e., the most fair and eminent part of it. The witnesses must remain dead upon this street, and upon it they must be raised again. And as the death of the witnesses and their resurrection hath a relation to the kingdom of France, it may well fall out, that we may not be far distant from the time of the resurrection of the witnesses, seeing that the three years and a half of their death, are either begun, or will begin shortly. "I lay not down the exact time of the resurrection of the witnesses. I do not say it shall be exactly in such a year; for I have declared, and do still declare, that I know not from what time God shall please to begin the reckoning of the three years and a half; not but I strongly hope that God intends to begin it at the time of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, but this does not arise to a full assurance." 3. The "Great City Where our Lord was Crucified" It was in the plateia, or Breadth, of the Great City, the witnesses were to be killed and to lie unburied for three days and a half. This is the first place where the phrase, the Great City, occurs in the apocalypse. It is evidently both a city and a country; for it is said to be "called spiritually Sodom and Egypt." The literal Sodom sunk into the abyss in the days of Abraham; it cannot, therefore, be the city of Lot. But, though destroyed, its memorial remains in the Daughters of Sodom. Since its destruction, the city has "spiritually" existed again in Jerusalem, which was "spiritually called Sodom," because of the Sodomitish abominations of her rulers and citizens. They were declared to be "a sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evil doers, children that are corrupters; who had forsaken Yahweh; provoked the Holy One of Israel; and gone away backward," or become apostate: so that "the whole head was sick, and the whole heart faint". From the sole of the nation's "foot even unto the head, there was no soundness in it; but wounds and bruises and putrifying sores" (Isa. 1:4-10). Hence, because of this moral likeness to Sodom and Gomorrha, the rulers and people were styled "the rulers of Sodom," and "the people of Gomorrha;" and would have met with the fate of those cities, but for the saving influence of "a very small remnant." Now Jerusalem as a daughter of Sodom, is illustrative of the moral condition of the Great City in whose breadth the witnesses were slain. It is spiritually called Sodom, because its rulers and people are the moral counterpart of the Jews in their worst condition, upon whom that name was imposed because they were even worse than "the cities of the plain" (Matt. 11:23, 24). There is nothing affirmed by Isaiah of Jerusalem as a spiritual Sodom, which is not literally descriptive of the uncleanness and filth of the Antichristian city and dominion. It is spiritually, or allegorically, styled Sodom, because of its moral likeness thereto, and because, being destitute of even "a very small remnant," the like fate is decreed against it. The original Sodom suddenly went down crashing into hell; so, when the Angel of the Bow, Yahweh Elohim, shall judge the Great City, "as a great millstone cast into the sea," she will go down surging and plunging into her subterranean abyss, and "be found no more at all" (Apoc. 18:21). But, the Great City is also allegorically styled "Egypt". It is the great "House of Bondage" in which Israel alter the flesh, and the "very small remnant," not of the city, but trampled in it, "the Israel of the Deity," are sojourning, and waiting for deliverance. It is also spiritual Egypt because of its moral likeness to the literal land of Mitzraim. Its superstition, its ignorance of Yahweh, its hatred and oppression of his people, its hardness of heart, its sorcery, adulteries and murders, its darkness that may be felt -- transcend the infamy of Pharaoh and his hosts in these abominations. The Great City is, therefore, well and truly styled Egypt. But it is also thus allegorized, because the plagues of Egypt await her; and because, the Eternal Spirit will judge her to an overthrow, as terrible and effectual in the judgment as when he judged the Egyptians by the hand of Moses. This Sodom-and-Egypt territorial arena of Gentilism is the Great City "where also our Lord was crucified." This is indicative of the empire allegorized by "Sodom and Egypt." Christ was crucified by Rome without the walls of Jerusalem. He was, therefore, crucified in a province of the Roman empire; for the Jews then inhabiting Palestine earnestly testified that they had no other king than Caesar -- John 19:15. Hence, the Great City is the empire of Rome, whose frontiers were decreed by Caracalla to be the limits of the city. The empire and city, then, are coextensive; in other words, they are the same. In this Great City, three thousand miles in one direction, and two thousand in another, the personal and mystical Christs were both crucified, or put to death by violence of the Fourth Beast power -- Jesus in Palestine; and the witnesses of Jesus in the plateia, or western breadth thereof -- the special jurisdiction of Antichrist. In Apoc. 14:8, this Great city is Styled Babylon, for a like reason that it is called Sodom and Egypt. It is spiritually styled Babylon; for it is as much a city of confusion as was the original Babylon when the language of mankind was confounded in the days of Nimrod. Its name signifies confusion; and certainly, if ever there was a city in which "confusion worse confounded" was enthroned, "the Great City" is that domain. In Apoc. 18:10, 21, it is styled, "that Great City Babylon," to be hereafter "divided" under the Seventh Vial "into three parts" (Apoc. 16:19). In ch. 17, this Great City is likened to a Drunken Harlot, gorgeously arrayed, and sitting upon a Scarlet-colored Beast, the symbol of the power over which she reigns -- verse 18. Her name is emblazoned in the filth verse as, "Mystery, Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth." She is styled "Mystery," because she is Ire embodiment of that "Mystery of Iniquity," which Paul says, was working at the time he was writing -- 2 Thess. 2:7. Scaliger testifies that "Mystery" was once worn as an inscription on the Pope's tiara; but afterwards removed by Julius III. The term "Mother," as applied to the Great City in its ecclesiastical relations is recognized by all. As Jerusalem is the Mother of all the Saints; so Rome is the Mother of all their enemies -- "Romans Ecclesia," says the Council of Trent, "quae omnium Ecclesiarum Mater est et Magistra" -- The Roman Church, which is the Mother and Mistress of all churches. The Popes themselves seem determined that there shall be no lack of evidence to prove the identity of the ecclesiastical polity of which they are the deified head, with the apocalyptical Great City Babylon. On occasion of the last Jubilee a medal was struck, a copy of which is given in Elliott. It is the size of a quarter of a dollar; on one face, is the effigy of Leo XII; and on the obverse, a Woman, symbolizing the Roman Church, sitting on a globe, with rays of glory on her head, a cross in the left hand, and a cup, signed with a cross in its mouth, in her extended right hand, as if presenting it to be drunk. Beneath her is the date, and around her face the legend "Sedet super Universam. Anno Iubi. MDCCCXXV -- She sits upon the world. In the year of Jubilee, 1825 -- Apoc. 17:4, 15. Yes, she sits upon the world, or "upon many waters," the shameless strumpet of the unmeasured court; and like certain notorious prostitutes of pagan times, bears her ignoble name upon her forehead. But the Great City is not only spiritually styled Babylon because of the confusion of spiritual speech that obtains among all the "Names and Denominations" of which it is ecclesiastically constituted; but because it is the modern development of the same power that existed in the days of the Chaldean Babylon; whose golden head, for the time being, was the Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar: and because a similar fate awaits her. It is, I say, the same power, only modified by time and circumstances. I do not say by place as well as by time and circumstances; for, when the Gogue of Ezekiel shall have attained to the full extent of his latter day dominion, much of Babylonia, even more than he now possesses, will be his. He will be, in the full manifestation of his power, the very apex of the Little Horn of the Goat -- the Hellenistic Horn of the Great City, which even now includes the site of Babylon in its domain. Now, Nebuchadnezzar who was, as it were, the second founder of Babylon, which he had built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of his power, and for the honor of his majesty (Dan. 4:30), was much interested to know what would be the fate of the kingdom over which he ruled. That he might know the thoughts of his heart (ch. 2:30) a symbolical representation was presented before him in a dream, illustrative of the general fortunes and consummation, of the kingdom of Babylon "in the latter days." Hence, the kingdom of Babylon has been in continuous existence from his reign until now, for we are now living "in the latter days." It is true, that "the House of the kingdom" has not always been the Babylon, which was the beginning of Nimrod's dominion (Gen. 10:10); it has been sometimes at one place, sometimes at another until at length Rome became "the House" of the Great City. Various dynasties have become the inheritors of the kingdom of Babylon. After Nebuchadnezzar's, there was the silver dynasty, and the brazen dynasty, and the iron dynasty, and the clay dynasty -- five dynasties ruling over one and the same kingdom; called also, "The Kingdim of Men" -- Dan. 4:17. This Babylonish kingdom in its latter-day manifestation, the Spirit styles apocalyptically, "that Great City Babylon;" and is the arena upon which will stand erect and complete in all its parts the entire Image, which, in these latter days, is to be smitten by the Stone, or Angel of the Rainbow. Now, a similar fate awaits the Roman House that in the days of Belshatzar befell the Chaldean House of this same kingdom of men The Median father Darius, and his political son, but fleshly nephew, and Yahweh's Messiah and Shepherd -- Cyrus the Persian, besieged the Shinar House. He dried up "the great river Euphrates" from the city; and marching their "sanctified ones" along its bed, captured the House of the Kingdom, and slew Lucifer, the Son of the Morning, with the sword (Isa. 13:3, 17; 14:12; 44:28; 45:1; Dan. 5:30). But in these things that were transacted against the original Babylon, there was a mystery. Cyrus, whose Hebrew name Choresh, which is a contraction Of Chayoraish, and signifies Like the Heir, was, as his name was intended to express, the type of Christ in the execution of his mission against "the Great City Babylon" of the latter days. Yahweh's sanctified ones, the Medes and Persians, under Cyrus, were also typical of the saints, who with Christ Jesus "the Heir of all things," and "joint heirs with him," at the head of the armies of Israel, are to enter the Great City when "the great river Euphrates," in a political sense, shall be sufficiently "dried up" to admit of their passage through into the Roman House of the kingdom of men, in which they will slay the Papal Lucifer -- "the Beast and the False Prophet" -- the Little Horn that has Eyes and a Mouth speaking great htings and blasphemies. The great river Euphrates, which flows into the Great City, has dried up greatly; that the way of these kings form the Sun's risings, may be prepared -- the power of the fourth, or Ottoman, angel is now only nominal; and the Gallic Forgs have well-nigh performed their mission: what, then, remains, but that Yahweh whom we seek shoudl suddently come to his temple, even the Messenger of the Covenant whom we delight in? (Apoc. 16:12-15; Ma. 3:1) and having broken, as a thief, into the strong man's domain, bind him with chains and cause Babylon to fall, no more again to rise and curse the world with her cruelty and deceit. Thus did the Spirit select three of the most infamous centres of iniquity among the ancients by wich to allegorize the Great City, upon the arena of which has been developed and matured the great Greek, Latin, and Protestant apostasy. It is "spirtually," or figuratively, called by these names, Sodom, Egypt, and Babylon, because of its striking resemblance to them in their beastiality, superstition blasphemy, oppression of God's people, and fate. Hence in Sodom, in Egypt, and in the Great City Babylon, "our Lord was crucified;" not in his own person only, but in that also of his witnesses; for what is done unto the least of his brethren, is done also unto him (Matt. 25:40); therefore in crucifying, or putting them to death, after their testimony was finished, he was again crucified with them in the Great City, they having been massacred in the noble service of witnessing for him against the deified usurper of his sovereignty and rights. 4. The Death-State of the Witnesses "And they shall see among the peoples, and tribes, and tongues, and nations, their corpses three days and a half, and they shall not suffer their corpses to be put into tombs." The ptomata, in this text rendered corpses, are so called because they had fallen down from their former position of "standing before the God of the earth." They were to be in this prostrate condition until something providential should occur to cause them to "stand upon their feet;" when, of course, they would no longer be corpses. The text before us, then, informs us, that the witnessing prophets having finished their tormenting testimony, were silenced. When witnesses are put to silence, they are symbolically dead; and so long as they are compelled by authority to keep silence, they are in the death-state: and though they may continue associated into bodies, yet being forbidden to assemble, and to propagate their principles upon pain of death, as by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, they are to all witnessing intents and purposes, dead bodies, or corpses. They were reduced to this condition of death in all the breadth of the Great City over which the Deity of the earth exercised ecclesiastical sovereignty: not in France alone, but in Italy, and other papal countries also. This appears from the formula blepsousin ek ton laon, &c,. they shall see among the peoples, &c., their corpses. They must have been put to silence among these peoples, tribes, tongues, and nations, or they could not have been seen by them as unburied corpses. These nationalities had often experienced the potent effects of their witnessing when "in their days of the prophecy" they had mined the waters into blood: but this they were now no longer able to do, for they had fallen down from their standing in their midst; and the time was come for these "waters upon which the Great Harlot sits," to rejoice over them in this the day of their prostration. Now, when people are dead, it is usual for the living to put them out of sight, or to bury them, as soon as possible; but, in the case of these corpses "they would not suffer them to be entombed." Who would not suffer it? Their enemies? Or some others friendly towards them? Certainly not their enemies; for these did their best to destroy them, and to blot out the remembrance of them for ever. It was the protection afforded them in the Protestant States that prevented their burial and decomposition. The refugee witnesses that fled by hundreds of thousands from the presence of the Deity of the earth and his regal adherents, settled in Holland, Britain, Protestant Germany, and America; where, under the protection of the laws, they existed as corporate societies, but bearing no testimony as of old. Some of these governments remonstrated in their behalf which was not without influence in staying the destroyer's hand. Hence, an unburied remnant of them was permitted to remain in the breadth of the Great City -- a prostrate remnant, no longer able to testify, but waiting in silence for their resurrection to life and power. 5. The "Three Days and a Half" And what length of time was to elapse from the slaying of the witnessing bodies in a.d. 1685, to their resurrection? The answer of the text is in mystical terms "three days and a half." Now during all the time of their lying dead and unburied in the breadth of the Great City, no one was able rightly to conjecture what number of years was signified by this enigmatical formula. But, when they arose and "stood upon their feet," they convulsed the Great City, and made it tremble in all its ten kingdoms. There could be no mistaking the fact, that the advocates of civil and religious liberty and the rights of man, who had been so cruelly massacred by Louis XIV., were again, in the reign of Louis XVI., in intense and terrible activity. This was, therefore, a resurrection of the same class that had been slain. New life had entered into them, and they were again a power in the state. The opening ceremony of the Estates General at Versailles on 15 May 1789. The clergy are on the King's right, the nobility on his left, the Third Estate at the back of the hall, with spectators crowded behind the pillars. On May 15, 1789, the States General of France, consisting of 601 deputies of the Third Estate; 285 nobles; and 308 clergy; in all 1254 representatives, opened their sitting at Versailles. The Third Estate, which was the popular element, desired that the three orders should form but one assembly. This the nobles and clergy at first refused to do. On the 17th June, however, some of the clergy having joined the Third Estate, the deputies declared their assembly to be the only legal one, and constituted themselves as The National Assembly; which, on the 27th, was joined by all the rest. On the 23rd of Aug. this new assembly published a decree proclaiming liberty of opinions, religious as well as political; on Oct. 1, it made a declaration of the Rights of Man in society; and on Dec. 24, issued a decree declaring all Frenchmen who are not Catholics admissible to all offices, both civil and military. Civil and religious liberty and the rights of man were the ancient testimony, both of the true believers, and of "the Earth" that helped them; and here we find the doctrine authoritatively reaffirmed by "the Earth" in its National Assembly, which restores these inestimable blessings to all noncatholic Frenchmen, who had been so mercilessly deprived of them in Oct. 1685. A Louis had taken away this liberty from his non-catholic subjects; and his grandson by the same class of people was compelled to restore it. Here, then, are two important and signal dates -- Oct. 1685, and Oct. 1789. These decrees of the National Assembly were as "the Spirit of life from the Deity;" and on the 10th July 1790 "they stood upon their feet;" for the Earth's Assembly on that day decreed, that the property of the expelled Huguenots unsold at date, confiscated by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, should be restored to their heirs. They called this the National Justice, which it was the providential mission of the Third Estate to execute; and with terrible fidelity did they fulfil it in vindicating the oppressed, and in punishing the oppressor. Now, between 1685 and 1790, is a period of 105 years. This is the duration of the death state in which the witnesses were deficient of all political life; and must consequently be the sum in common years of the mystical formula "three days and a half." But, then, the enigma still remains to be solved, namely, upon what principle do "three days and a half" represent 105 years? As we have seen, two years after 1685, Peter Jurieu proclaimed to the world, truly, that the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes signalized the death of the witnesses; and three years after the decree restoring to them their unsold confiscated estates; that is, in 1793, Mr. Bicheno, pastor of a Baptist church in Newbury, England, who, though cloudy upon some points, was sufficiently sound to be regarded as one of the resurrected witnesses, proclaimed his conviction in a pamphlet styled, "The Signs of the Times," that 1789-'90, was the year of their standing again upon their feet; and that the 105 years then terminating were the full measure of the "three days and a half." But the best of his discovery was, that he was enabled to explain to the public upon which principle "three days and a half" are symbolical of 105 years. The reader will, no doubt, be gratified in perusing what he has to say about the matter; I shall, therefore, reproduce it in this place: "What length of time," he inquires, "is intended by these three days and a half? My answer is, that days in this eleventh verse are the same with months in the second verse, or, if you please, lunar days, reckoning as the Jews did, thirty days to a month, and as is the method in calculating the above forty and two months, to make them agree with the 1260 days in the third verse." Thirty multiplied by three, adding fifteen for the half day, makes 105. When this way of reckoning first occurred to my mind, I had no idea of the events which this number connected; for I did not recollect the year when the Edict of Nantes was revoked. But looking over Quick's Synodicon, I found it to be Oct. 18, 1685, to which, if 105 be added, it brings us to 1790; take off the few months (if that should be thought necessary) for the event taking place before the half day is quite expired, and it brings us to 1789, when "the witnesses were to be quickened." This is not necessary, as the 105 year belongs partly to '89 and partly to '90, in both which the quickening was in process of development. "Whether this may strike others," he continues, "as it struck me, when I first observed the coincidence, I cannot tell; but from this agreement of the number 105 with the time which elapsed between one of the greatest persecutions ever experienced by christians, and this wonderful revolution which has taken place, a thousand ideas rushed upon my mind. Is it probable, is it possible, that this can be the quickening of the witnesses? What! The Olive Trees? The Candlesticks? I have always supposed these to be all Saints! And can that zeal which hath fired Frenchmen to combat for civil and religious liberty, to be 'the Spirit of life from God?' Is this resurrection, in the vision, the rising of this civil and religious liberty, previous to better days? -- I will do all that I can to discover the truth." "I feel great satisfaction that this interpretation of a most important passage, about the publication of which I felt so much, has been approved by some of the best judges of such matters; and that some have strengthened the hypothesis by additional arguments, and those more apposite than what occurred to me. What the sensible and indefatigable author of Illustrations of Prophecy, has brought forward to show the propriety of this uncommon use of the term day, is very much to the purpose. 'A prophecy concerning future events is a picture or representation of the events in symbols (I quote from Dr. Lancaster), which being fetched from objects visible at one view, or cast of the eye, rather represent the events in miniature, than in full proportion. And therefore, that the duration of the events may be represented in terms suitable to the symbols of the visions, the symbols of duration must also be drawn in miniature. Thus, for instance, if a vast empire persecuting the church for 1260 years, was to be symbolically represented by a beast, the decorum of the symbol would require, that the said time of its tyranny should not be expressed by 1260 years, because it would be monstrous and indecent to represent a beast ravaging for so long a time, but by 1260 days'. In the like manner, in the present instance, as Daubuz expresses himself: 'The Holy Ghost was tied to the decorum of the main symbol of a dead body that will keep no longer unburied without corruption.' From these observations, it will, I think, appear evident, why, in the prophetic scenery, it was proper to represent the body of the witnesses as having lain dead only three days and a half antecedently to their symbolical resurrection." 6. Revival of the Witnessing for Gospel Truth "We have long been praying thy kingdom come, and is there any probability," says Mr. Bicheno, "that the preludes to it are arrived? And shall we be unconcerned about the signs of the times? It is deserving the most serious consideration, whether the revolution in France be not the beginning of the fulfilment of this prophecy. I say beginning; for according to the prophecies, if this be the event pointed out by the resurrection of the witnesses, we have as yet seen but the dawn of what is to come, nor shall we perhaps for some time. Black and conflicting clouds will darken the hemisphere and obscure our prospect; but they will spend themselves and vanish. But were we sure that this event (the resurrection of the witnesses) is what we conjecture, yet no man could say how long it would be before 'the Spirit of Life from God,' by those more excellent operations, and in that larger degree, which we look for, enter into the witnesses for gospel truth; for they may be quickened with political life, and yet remain some time with a small share of spiritual life." "Although the French people are actuated by an astounding zeal for civil and religious liberty, yet their character seems very far from agreeing with what we expect from the witnesses for gospel truth. In the things of religion they appear to be no further enlightened at present than to see the rights of conscience, and the absurdities and cruel oppressions of the Papal system. This is certainly an important part of truth, and what promises to pave the way for the triumphs of pure religion; and perhaps, considering the greatness of that darkness emerged from, it may be as much as could rationally be expected at the beginning of such a reformation. But of true godliness there appears but little at present; and it is to be feared that they, as well as most other nations, must endure great sufferings before we shall see that repentance which must precede the happy days promised in God's word." These things were written by Mr. Bicheno seventy-two years ago. He lived at the crisis of the resurrection of the witnesses and at the opening of the Third Woe; consequently, only in "the dawn of what was then coming." Since then, "dark and conflicting clouds" have darkened the hemisphere, spent themselves, and vanished away; for since he wrote, five of the vials of the third woe trumpet have been entirely drained of their wrath; and forty-five years of the sixth, have brought us over the year 1864; when he supposed the 1335 years of Daniel would end; and the work of destroying the remains of tyranny, and purifying and enlarging the Gentile church, would be finished; and the glorious appearing of the Lord be manifested. This work however, we, who are contemporary with 1865, know to be yet in the womb of futurity. Mr. Bicheno did well in stirring up his own generation to the study of the apocalypse; and in discovering for us the true import of the "three days and a half." His labor was not lost; and we thank our Heavenly Father for raising up such witnesses, whose memory the faithful in Christ Jesus do always delight to honor. The laborers of this class were contributing to that very resurrection he looked for; a resurrection, not merely of political life, but for that more excellent resuscitation of a witnessing for gospel truth. The establishment of the British and Foreign Bible Society in March 1804, by which the scriptures, in defiance of the mandates of the God of the earth, have been circulated greatly among those nations in which the witnesses stood upon their feet again, has strengthened "the earth" in its resistance to arbitrary power; and prepared the minds of many to receive, and to seek for "the truth as it is in Jesus" for eternal life. When the truth gets a sufficient hold of these prepared seekers of the unmeasured court, it makes them restless and dissatisfied with the dry, stereotyped, superstitions of their fathers. Hence, they are caused to make efforts for a return to the gospel and order of things, as preached and instituted originally by Christ and the Apostles. There have been more of these efforts since the resurrection of the secular witnesses to renewed political life and vigor in France, than for upwards of a century before. Indeed, I am not aware, that there was any such effort at all in the great City of Babylon from 1572 to 1789; but since this last date there have been several in the outlying regions of the British Isles and America. The Baptist Sect arose in England before the witnesses were put to death in the papal jurisdiction of the Great City. They were a separation from that class of "the Earth" known as "The Independents." The Word of God got possession of their minds and affections, and would permit them no longer to remain among "the children of disobedience." They therefore separated themselves in 1638; and, having renounced the Papal Ordinance of Baby-Face sprinkling, profanely termed by all Laodiceans, "baptism," they dispatched one of their number to Holland to be immersed by the Anabaptists (as they were ignorantly styled by Luther and his class) that on his return he might be qualified to immerse his friends at home. Hence, these immersed brethren became witnesses of the Holy City class; that is, of the "One Body." They preserved the truth from dying out in England during the deathstate of the witnesses in the papal section of the continent of Europe; and after 1789-'90, we find their testimony reviving in the writings of Mr. Bicheno and the organized circulation of the scriptures -- a society instituted by "the Woman" and "the Earth" which "helped" her. During the time the witnesses were lying politically and spiritually dead (and of this death the Baptists partook as well as "the Earth," adopting Calvinistic, Armenian, and Free Communion traditions, which make void the Word of the Deity), a bootless effort was made to return to first principles by Mr. John Glass, a Calvinist "divine" of the Scottish Daughter of the Roman Mother. To his honor be it said, that he was expelled by this apocalyptic "Harlot," on the charge of entertaining a design of subverting the National Covenant, and of sapping the foundation of all national religious establishments, by maintaining that the Kingdom of Christ is not of this world; in other words, he was expelled for affirming what Christ himself, "the Faithful and True Witness," bore witness to before Pilate. Would a church of Christ have been guilty of such iniquity as this? Such papistic deeds only prove that "the churches" committing them have no claims to be regarded as christian in any scriptural sense. Mr. Glass, then, was expelled by this "woman," with whom he had been apocalyptically "defiled" (Apoc. 14:4), in the year 1728. He and his adherents formed themselves into churches, which they endeavored to conform to the primitive order of the New Testament. Soon after the year 1755, one of their elders, named Robert Sandeman, became a prominent advocate of their principles. He taught that justifying faith was a simple belief of the divine testimony, passively received by the understanding; which testimony carries in itself sufficient ground of hope to every one who believes it, without any collateral spiritualistic operation; that the gospel contained no offer but that of evidence, and that it was merely a record or testimony to be credited; that there is acceptance with God through Christ for sinners, while they are sinners, before "any act, exercise, or exertion of their minds whatsoever;" consequently, before repentance. Hence, his theory was, justification by passive belief of the truth alone! He was very severe, but not more so than was in accordance with the truth, in his criticism of the "popular preachers." "I would be far," says he, "from refusing even to the popular preachers themselves what they so much grudge to others -- the benefit of the one instance of a hardened sinner (the thief on the cross) finding mercy at last; for I know of no sinners more hardened, none greater destroyers of mankind, than they." The Sandemanian section of "the Earth" differed from other sects of the Court, in the weekly administration of the supper; in dining to gether at each other's houses between the morning and afternoon meetings; these dinings were their love-feasts, of which every member was required to partake. They differed also in the kiss of charity, as the act of receiving into fellowship; in a weekly contribution for all expenses; in mutual exhortation; in abstinence from blood and things strangled; in washing of feet; in a plurality of elders, pastors, or bishops, in each church, who, though unlearned and in trade, are sufficiently qualified for their office, if answerable to the specifications found in 1 Tim. 3:1-7; Tit. 1:6-9. They separated themselves from all such religious societies as appeared to them not to profess the simple truth for their only ground of hope, and who do not walk in obedience to it. The Baptist churches in Scotland imbibed a considerable part of these principles, by which a nearer approach was made to the apostolic order of things; but not sufficiently to constitute them resurrected witnesses for the Ancient Gospel of Jesus Christ. The theory they professed was an improvement upon that of the Scottish Harlot. It might be assented to as a basis for immersion; but would still leave the confessor "in the gall of bitterness and the bond of iniquity." The philosophy and vain deceit of Protestantism had so "defiled" the baptist mind in the period of death they had passed through, that their resuscitation as a society witnessing the gospel had become hopeless. It remained, therefore, to be attained in the face of their active endeavors to suppress it. The effort was renewed in the United States of America, and crowned with the result desired. Another "reverend divine" of the Scottish Harlot's family was stirred up to attack the institutions which had given him birth. In 1819, or thereabouts, he separated himself and a few others from her communion, and joined the Baptists. Upon this, he commenced a periodical called the Christian Baptist, in which he ably exposed the unscriptural character of the faith, order, and practices of the so-called "religious world". He was particularly severe upon his clerical brethren, and "the benevolent institutions of the day," by which they proposed to introduce the Millennium! His unsparing attacks upon all the "Names and Denominations" caused him to be denounced on every side, as a demoralizing disturber of all ecclesiastical peace and comfort. Papists, Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and others, were all made to writhe in the anguish of his tormenting testimony against them; and would willingly have extinguished him after the approved fashion of former days, but for his brethren of "the Earth," who, at the epoch of their resurrection to political life and power, had founded the new government under which he lived. This guaranteed civil and religious liberty to all sects and persons; and protected them in the freest exercise of all their natural and acquired rights. The French army, which was sent to help "the Earth" established its independence of the Anglican Daughter of the Roman Harlot, on its return to France reimported into that land the principles of liberty and the rights of man; which, after the "three days and a half" were ended, as "Spirit of Life from the Deity, broke in upon" the constituents of the Third Estate, and caused them to "stand upon their feet" to the great terror of all who beheld them (Apoc. 11:11). This onslaught upon the Laodicean Apostasy in the United States produced a powerful effect upon multitudes, who separated themselves from all of its Names and Denominations. These were formed into churches by Messrs. Walter Scott, Alexander Campbell, and their colaborers, upon a simple confession that Jesus is the Christ, and immersion for the remission of sins. Many of the principles taught by Messrs. Glass and Sandeman were engrafted upon this stock; and "Campbellism," divested of its Calvinism, became a new edition of Scotch Baptistism in America. The legends of this new sect, which it afterwards refused to practise, were: "Prove all things, and hold fast that which is good;" and, on the obverse of its medal, "Style no man on earth your Father; for he alone is your Father who is in heaven; and all ye are brethren. Assume not the title of Rabbi; for ye have only one Teacher; neither assume the title of Leader; for ye have only one Leader, the Messiah." The sentiment of these precepts is admirable; and, had it been carried into practice, would have led the disciples of these reformers into the very Holy City itself. But, as it turned out, they adjudged themselves unworthy of so distinguished an honor, and are now grovelling among the dust of "the Earth." In those days, the author of this exposition of the apocalypse, then a young man of about thirty years of age, found himself among them, before he understood their theory in detail. He applied himself diligently to the thorough understanding of it by the study of the writings current among them. This he acquired; so that he needeth not that any should testify of Scotto-Campbellism; for he knows what is in it, and that it falls infinitely short of its pretension to be the "restoration of the ancient gospel and order of things." The author adopted with great zest and zeal the sentiment of their legend. He proceeded to "prove all things," and to "hold fast what" he believed to be "good;" and to call no man father, teacher, or leader, but Christ, the truth (John 14:6). In doing this, he devoted himself to the study of the prophetic and apostolic writings, under the impression that he was engaged in a good work; and, as he was then publishing a periodical entitled The Apostolic Advocate, he would from time to time report to his brethren for their benefit, what he found taught therein. In pursuing this study, he found many of their principles to be at variance with "the word," which was made void by them. Perceiving this, and supposing that the spirit of their legend was the spirit of their body, he did not hesitate to lay his convictions before them that they might prove them, and hold them, or reject them, according to the testimony. This raised quite a storm among them, the thunderbolts of which were aimed at him by the thunderer of their sect. This uproar caused the author to discover that he had made a mistake in his reading of their legends; and that their reading of Paul's words was, "Prove all things which we have proved; and hold fast what we believe to be good;" and of Jesus, "Call no man father, teacher, or leader, but Alexander Campbell." These were readings that he had never agreed to; and, therefore, he continued to read and publish according to the old method, very much to the indignation and disgust of the Simon Pures who misled the multitude. But he saw that they did not walk honestly according to the truth, or the principles they professed. The gospel proclaimed by this sect of "the Earth," was a misunderstanding of Peter's pentecostian address. It preached "baptism for remission of sins" to every one who confessed that Jesus was the Son of God. This was styled "the Ancient Gospel." The preachers of the Baptist sect denounced it as a damnable heresy. Many of these same preachers, however, from divers causes, changed their minds, left their own mother, joined the Scotto-Campbellites, and, without reimmersion, became "evangelists" and "pastors" among them. Considering this fact, it occurred to the author to inquire, "If, when ye were baptist 'divines,' ye denounced what, as Scotto-Campbellite 'evangelists,' ye now preach and believe to be the Ancient Gospel; what was that gospel ye obeyed when ye were immersed into baptistism?" They either could not, or would not, answer this question; for they were acute enough to perceive that a scriptural reply would have convicted them of preaching a gospel for remission of sins which they had not themselves obeyed; and, consequently, that they were but pious unpardoned sinners, promising to others liberty while they were themselves the servants of corruption. These "evangelists" were the ruin of the sect. They succeeded in closing the eyes and ears of the multitude against the truth; and they remain closely sealed to this day. The numerical increase of the sect, without regard to the scriptural qualifications of their proselytes, was the standard of the "good" done. They preached the immortality of the soul; the translation of righteous immortal souls to kingdoms beyond the skies at death; the dismissal of unjust immortal souls into eternal torments in hell at death; the salvation of the immortal souls of infants and pagans -- a salvation, consequently, without faith; they proclaimed that the church is the kingdom, and was set up on the day of Pentecost; that Jesus is now sitting on the throne of David; that the apostles are ruling with him, and sitting upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel; that the old testament scriptures are as an old Jewish almanac out of date; that the gospel is, that Christ died for our sins, was buried, and rose again; and that whosoever believed these "three facts," and confessed that Jesus was Son of God, had the "one faith;" that he was justified by this belief, or pardoned, though he might be in doubt; therefore, to make assurance doubtless, they prescribed immersion for that enjoyment that comes from knowledge of remission of sins; that this was the "one baptism;" that there were three salvations -- salvation from present ills, salvation from sins, and salvation from hell-torments; that there were three kingdoms -- that of law, that of grace or the church, and that of glory; that the first was entered by birth of flesh; the second, by birth of water, or the right hand of fellowship; and the third, at death. Such were the leading traditions with which the leaders intoxicated and demented the multitude for their own advantage; and surely he must be judicially blind, who cannot see that the Scotto-Campbellite sect, which, indeed, shook American ecclesiasticism severely, was, nevertheless, not the resurrected witnessing of the saints for the veritable ancient apostolic faith. But, after all, good was done. The influence of the clergy over the multitude was vastly diminished; and great numbers were stirred up to read the scriptures, and to think for themselves. The author and many of his friends were of this "very small remnant." Under the inspiration of the word believed, he could not be silent, whatever consequences might arise. Hence in October, 1834, he raised his voice against the system in an article upon baptism. He maintained, that before immersion could be scripturally recognized as the "one baptism," the subject thereof must be possessed of the "one faith". This was a hard blow upon the baptistic Scotto-Campbellite "evangelists;" and they felt it. It also condemned the author's immersion; which, however, he did not discover till twelve years after. He maintained -- 1. That belief, built on the testimony of the prophets and apostles concerning the Christ; confession that Jesus of Nazareth is that Christ, the Son of the Living God; and immersion into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, for repentance and remission, are part and parcel of, and necessary to, the ordinance of purification of sin, styled by Paul, the "One Baptism." 2. That mere immersion is not baptism; but that a man cannot be aqueously baptized without being immersed in water. 3. That they whose immersion is predicated upon "a certificate of former good character," and a tale of sights and sounds, frames and feelings, called "experience," with no more faith than amounts to a belief that "the word of God is a dead letter," and that "if they don't get religion they'll be damned" -- that an immersion in the name of the Father, &c., predicated on such premises, is not christian baptism. 4. That the subjects of any baptism not predicated upon the "good confession," are not entitled to the spiritual blessings consequent on the "one baptism." 5. That the Deity, having placed his name in his institutions, all communicable blessings flow through those institutions, of which christian baptism is one. 6. That every immersed person who is not immersed on "the good confession," is not founded upon The Rock; and consequently forms no part of the Church of Christ. 7. That the reimmersion of such a believer is not a re-baptism, and therefore justifiable -- such reimmersion being his first scriptural baptism. Such was the testimony of a.d. 1834. In the course of the year following he called in question their speculations and traditions concerning the soul, heaven, hell, eternal torment, the Devil, their salvation without faith, and so forth. He was not quite clear upon these topics himself; but their violent attacks, threw him upon the defensive, and compelled him to fortify. By a closer study of the word he attained to full assurance of faith, which was only confirmed by the feebleness of their arguments in debate. He maintained: 1. That "a living soul" was not an "immortal soul," but a Body of Life, exemplified by the first Adam. 2. That immortality was not an abstract essence, but life endlessly developed through incorruptible organic substance, or body. 3. That "the Deity only hath immortality" underived. 4. That incorruptibility and life, or immortality, are a part of the reward promised only to the righteous, on condition of their patient continuance in well-doing. 5. That they only are the righteous who believe the truth and obey it. 6. That "the dead know not anything." 7. That the just and unjust are rewarded at their resurrection from among the dead, and not before. 8. That "the righteous shall be recompensed in the earth," when the meek will inherit it. 9. That the wicked and the sinner will also be recompensed in the earth; from which they will "be cut off and rooted out," as unfit to inhabit it: for being without understanding of the word, they are like the beasts that perish. 10. That the clerical devil is a mythological fiction. 11. That the devil of scripture is, first, sin manifested individually in and through our common nature; secondly, sin in ecclesiastical and political manifestation. Hence, the powers of the world are styled "the Devil and his Angels." 12. That without faith there is no salvation. The statement of these propositions stirred up the devil on every side, and made him roar like a devouring lion; but the truth of them turned his wrath into great bitterness. He denounced the author as "a moonstricken speculator," "a materialist," "an infidel," "an atheist, fit only for the society of Tom Paine, Voltaire, and that herd." These were the weapons, endorsed with all the influence and power of the sect for evil, against one man, whom he contemptuously spumed as "a stripling," and classed with the unclean beasts of the ark! But "the Earth that helps the Woman" being in power, these ravings and roarings were permitted to break no bones. Great efforts were made to suppress both the author and his writings, till at length they so far succeeded as to prevent their flocks from reading them and listening to his discourse. Alas, for any people reduced by crafty and designing men to such a case! How can the truth enter those whose eyes and ears are closed? Nevertheless, its advocacy was not abandoned, though the aspect of things was very discouraging. Several, however, avowed their conviction of the truth of these propositions; and though the policy of the Devil was to fight him by letting him alone, the study of "the faith once for all delivered to the saints" was continued; and, as it broke in upon his mind, was dealt out by the press and tongue to all who had "ears to hear what the Spirit had said to the ecclesias." By the year 1847, he had illustrated and proved the following propositions to the conviction of increasing numbers: 1. That the Gospel preached by the apostles was originally preached to Abraham, announcing blessedness for all nations in him and in his Seed, when he should possess the gate of his enemies. 2. That this Gospel promised Abraham and his Seed that they should be the Heirs of the World, which they should possess forever. 3. That Abraham, "hoping against hope," was fully persuaded that what the Deity had promised he was also able to perform, and therefore it was counted to him for righteousness. 4. That the land in which he sojourned, and kept his flocks and herds, and in scripture styled the Holy Land, and Yahweh's Land was promised to him for an everlasting possession. 5. That this promise of the land became a confirmed covenant 430 years before the Mosaic Law was added. 6. That the Seed of Abraham, whose day he rejoiced to see, was to descend from the tribe of Judah in the line of David; and to be at once both son of David and Son of God. 7. That a covenant was made with David, ordered in all things and sure, promising that the Seed should descend from him; that he should possess a kingdom in a future age; that he should be Son of the Eternal Father; that he should be afflicted unto death; that he should rise again; that the throne of his kingdom should be David's throne; that Christ should occupy the throne in his presence; that he shall reign over the House of Jacob, in the covenanted land, during the age; and that of his kingdom there shall be no end. 8. That these covenants made with Abraham and with David are styled by Paul "the Covenants of Promise," and that they contain "the things concerning the Kingdom of God," which must be believed as a part of the faith that justifies. 9. That the Christ is the Eternal Father by his spirit manifested in the Seed of David, and that Jesus of Nazareth is he. 10. That in his crucifixion, Sin was condemned in the same flesh that had transgressed in Paradise, so that in the crucified body he bore the sins of his people upon the tree, that they being dead to sin, should live unto righteousness. 11. That he was raised from among the dead by the power of the Father, for the justification or pardon of those who believe the covenanted promises, and the things concerning him. 12. That the things concerning the Christ as a sufferer, and fulfilled in Jesus, are "the things concerning the Name of Jesus Christ," which must also be believed as the other part of the faith which justifies. 13. That Repentance is a change of mind and disposition, produced by "the exceeding great and precious promises" lovingly believed, and resulting in "the obedience of faith." 14. That repentance, remission of sins, and eternal life are granted in the name of Jesus Christ. 15. That the Obedience of Faith consists in believing the gospel preached to Abraham, the preaching of Jesus Christ, and the revealed mystery of his Name, and in being immersed into the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. 16. That repentance, remission of sins, and a right to incorruptibility and life are institutionally granted to believers of the truth as outlined above in being buried with Christ by immersion into death to sin, from whence they rise with Christ, to walk in newness of life. 17. That Abraham, the prophets, and the brethren under the Mosaic Law, are justified by the belief of the promises covenanted to Abraham and David, which covenants were brought into force by the death of the Testator, or Deity in flesh-manifestation called Jesus Christ; and that the immersed, and they only, whether Jews or Gentiles, from the Day of Pentecost to the return of the Ancient of Days, are justified by belief of the same covenanted promises and of things concerning the Name of Jesus Christ as specified above. Thus, there is one Deity who shall justify the circumcision ek pisteos, by, from, or out of faith; and the uncircumcision dia tes pisteos, "through the faith;" for whether under the Law or since the law, "the just shall live by faith," "without which it is impossible to please God." 18. That "the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," is equivalent to "the Name of Jesus Christ;" and expresses "the great mystery of godliness," the Deity manifested in flesh: that this manifestation was first an individual unity, and then a multitudinous unity, in flesh and blood nature; that the individual divine unity was "justified by spirit" when Jesus was glorified; and that the multitudinous unity, consisting of all saints, will be made like him when he shall appear in power. Hence, when this consummation shall be complete, "The Name" will be the Eternal Father by spirit manifested in a multitude of immortals, whom no man can number. The scriptural designation of this Divine Unity is Yahweh echad -- the One who shall be. 19. That this name exists in Two States -- the present and the future -- which states are separated by the resurrection. In the present state, the Name is apocalyptically symbolized by "the Sealed," "the Golden Altar," "the Holy City trampled," "the Woman and the remnant of her seed;" and in the future state, by "the Four Living ones full of eyes," and "the four and twenty elders;" by the Rainbowed Angel; by the Nave; by the 144,000 on Mount Zion; by harpists and singers; by the Lamb's wife arrayed in white; by the armies in the heaven; and by the Great City, the Holy Jerusalem, as a Bride adorned for her husband. 20. That the Gospel is glad tidings, inviting men and women to become constituents of this Divine Name, and therefore Heirs of the World with Abraham, on condition of believing the truth as it is in Jesus, being immersed, and walking in the newness of life, as shown above. Such is the system of truth in outline elaborated by the author from the word as the result of an earnest contention for the faith which, as I have said, continued about twelve years. Its operation on his own mind was to cause him to be immersed; and, being thus put right himself, to go forth and show the "straight gate and narrow way" to others. "The spirit of life from the Deity," which Mr. Bicheno was looking for but did not see, had "entered into the witnesses for gospel truth," as he expressed it, when in 1847, the Gospel of the Kingdom and Name was once more proclaimed for the obedience of faith. A few congregations had been collected upon this basis in America, and "the earth" has been to some extent impregnated with their principles. These earthborns, however, mix up many traditions with what they have learned, which make the truth of none effect for their salvation. They are known by various names, such as Millerites, Adventists, Storrites, and so forth, who while dissatisfied with their old mother and her daughters, have neither intelligence nor faith enough in the word to become citizens of the downtrodden Holy City. This witnessing society is "too exclusive," "too dogmatic," "too denunciatory of the christians of other denominations," "makes too much of baptism," to suit them. It affords no scope for money-making by preaching, for personal glorification by conventions, conferences, periodicals, and so forth. For these, and other reasons too numerous and burdensome to recount, they turn their backs upon those who are able to enlighten them, and exhaust their feebleness in the work of hewing out for themselves cisterns -- broken cisterns -- which will hold no water. But, the author did not confine his testimony to the territory of "the Model Republic". In that "wonderful year," a.d. 1848, signalized by the terrible shaking given to the kingdoms of the Great City by "the Earth," he reimported the testimony into his native land -- a land of Bibles, whose truth was buried under mountains of tradition for want of a living witness to exhume it, and to set it intelligibly before the people. Two hundred and seventy discourses in a little over two years; the circulation of eleven hundred copies of Elpis Israel; and less than a hundred copies of the Herald of the Kingdom, per annum, for eleven years; with about a hundred and fifty copies of the first volume of this work -- has been his agency in witnessing for the truth against the Laodicean Apostasy in Great Britain. The "very small remnant" has been increased by acquisitions in Britain. The Holy City has acquired voice; and though feeble, is making itself heard, and attended to, by the people. In 1862, the author revisited that country. He found several churches that had struggled into a semi-witnessing existence. The truth had more real friends than in 1848-'50; but it had also many more dangerous embarrassments to encounter, than at that time. Its worst enemies are its pretended friends. It is from these that the truth now suffers both in Britain and America. "The Earth" is a good breastwork against the Serpent; but it is too ignorant and wise in its own conceit to be "a witness for gospel truth." I trust, however, that a better day has dawned in the current 1866; when the principles herein outlined will find such an earnest expressior by their adherents, that no teaching will be endured among them, by press or tongue, that is not in strict accordance with the oracles of God. I shall conclude this section by another quotation from Bicheno, respecting the "three days and a half." "Days, in the mystical language of prophecy, and particularly in the Revelation, generally signify years. But if that be their meaning here, an essential agreement is wanting; for the time, from the repeal of the Edict of Nantes to the French Revolution, was about 105 years. Terms of time among the ancients were ambiguous. Days, months, and years, had not always their proper signification; for 'months,' says Artemidorus, 'are sometimes denoted by years, and days too; and years and days by months; and months and years by days.' It was the subject, or the rule of proportion which determined the meaning of the terms. Hence, Daubuz observes respecting the terms of time in the symbolic language: 'Terms of time being thus ambiguous amongst the ancients, they must, in the symbolic language, be by the rule of proportion determined by the circumstances. Prophecy concerning future events is a picture, or representation, of the events in symbols, which being fetched from objects visible at one view, or cast of the eye, rather represent the events in miniature, than in full proportion; giving us more to understand than what we see. And, therefore, that the duration of the events may be represented in terms suitable to the symbols of the visions, the symbols of duration must also be drawn in miniature.' "Days, then, may stand for months. And we may here see the reason why the witnesses are represented as lying dead three days and a half, rather than three months and a half, or 105 days. The duration of events must be represented in terms suitable to the symbols of the visions. The symbol is, dead bodies lying in the street. How monstrous would it be to represent dead bodies as lying in such a situation for 105 days! The time of their lying dead is therefore, drawn in miniature suitable to dead bodies lying in a street; and these lunar days, or months, are to be calculated in the same manner as the 'forty and two months' in the second verse. Thus 3 X 30 + 15 = 105 years; the time which elapsed from the repeal of the Edict of Nantes to the French Revolution."

7. Ascension of the Witnesses into the Heaven

"And they heard a great voice out of the heaven saying to them, 'Ascend hither!' And they ascended into the heaven in the cloud; and their enemies beheld them." By heaven in this place, we are to understand the political heaven which ruled over the plateia of the Great City upon which the corpses of the witnesses were extended: -- the political heaven of "the tenth of the Great City." It was the power of this heaven embodied in the government of the "Grand Monarque," Louis XIV, that conquered and put them to death; and it was the power of the same heaven that blindly legislated them into an erect position, so that they were able to "stand upon their feet." "Contending For the faith" Jude 3 The forces operating this result are very clearly exhibited in "Thiers' Hist. of the French Revolution." It would occupy too much space for details. The period was stormy and perplexing; and none were able to direct or allay the excitement, that agitated all classes of the people. The Court, the noblesse, the clergy, and the people, were all in antagonism; nor were these orders in the state agreed among themselves; added to which, the army was disaffected, the taxes intolerable to the masses, atheistic philosophy prevalent, depravity excessive, extravagance boundless, and the public treasury empty. Alison writing upon this crisis says: "The American war was the great change which blew into a flame the embers of innovation. Such was the universal enthusiasm which seized upon France at its commencement that nobles of the highest rank, princes, dukes, and marquises, solicited with impatient zeal commissions in the regiments destined to aid the insurgents. The passion for republican institutions increased with the successes of the American war, and at length arose to such a height as to infect even the courtiers of the palace. The philosophers of France used every method of flattery to bring over the young nobles to their side; and the profession of liberal opinions became as indispensable a passport to the saloons of fashion as to the favor of the people." This combination of influences at length came to a head, and set, in a strong current, against the court. In order, therefore, to divert into another channel what might become an overwhelming flood, Louis XVI was now anxious for the convocation of the States General, the opening of which he fixed by "a great voice," or edict, "out of the heaven," saying, "Ascend hither!" on May 5, 1789. The Court ordained that the total number of the deputies should be at least a thousand; and that the Tiers-Etat, or Third Estate, should be equal to the other two orders united. The clergy, the nobles and the deputies of the people, were the three orders of the States General. The third estate comprehended nearly the whole nation; all the useful, industrious, and enlightened classes; for this reason, its deputies by the casting vote of Monsieur, who afterwards reigned as Louis XVIII, were doubled, or exceeded the other two orders united by sixty-seven, the whole number being 1254. This number constituted what, in the prophecy, is termed "the Cloud." In nature, by the electrical force exhalations are elevated from the earth to the dew point of the aerial, where they are condensed into visible masses, termed clouds. So, analogously in the generation of symbolic clouds. The sovereign power of a state by its edict elevates from among the people their representatives, who when they reach the place to which they are convoked, become a visible and recognized body in the state, or political aerial, on the verification of the powers of the members. This verification is the condensation of them into "a Cloud." The public mind, agitated by events, full of the confused idea of a speedy revolution, was in a continual ferment. In the heat of this the elections took place. "Tradesmen, lawyers, literary men, astonished to find themselves assembled together for the first time, raised themselves up by degrees to liberty." It was an extraordinary resurrection. The moment of the convocation at length arrived. The King alone, who had not enjoyed a moment's repose since the commencement of his reign, regarded the States General as the termination of his embarrassments! It was therefore with joy that he made preparations for this grand assembly; which was opened with great national, military, and religious pomp, by which all hearts were deeply moved. The first business was the verification of the powers of the members. It became a question whether this should take place in common, or by separate orders. The Democracy insisted upon the verification in common. The nobility and clergy were for each order verifying its own members. The Democracy were determined not to give way. All compromise became impossible. The inertia of the inexorable Third Estate, who would do nothing till the nobility and clergy were merged with itself into one homogeneous assembly, exhausted the patience and prudence of their enemies; who, forgetting the animosities between the Court and the higher orders, sought reconciliation between them, that they might be enabled to repress the audacity of the tiers-etat, "whose power was rising with such rapidity." The nobles and titled clergy threw themselves at the feet of the King, and implored him to support their rights, which were attacked equally with his own. They strove to procure a dissolution of the States General, which would have been a dispersion of "the Cloud;" and a frustration of the providential purpose of its manifestation. But the commons would not allow their enemies to dispose of them after this fashion. They proclaimed themselves, after a stormy sitting, The National Assembly on June 17, 1789; whose mission it was to regenerate and restore the nation. But, we are not to suppose that this heterogeneous cloud of deputies were the witnesses. The National Assembly contained many enemies to liberty and human rights and interests -- many who were devoted friends of the Roman Deity and arbitrary power everywhere. Speaking of the Witnesses against these, the prophecy says: "They ascended into the heaven en te nephele, in the cloud." They were in the States General, and of it; but they were not themselves the States General, nor National Assembly. The following extract will show how the prophecy harmonized with facts: "In the National Assembly," says Ferrieres testifying concerning the deputies of his own party, "there were not more than about three hundred really upright men, exempt from party spirit, not belonging to any club, wishing what was right, wishing it for its own sake, independent of the interest of orders or of bodies, always ready to embrace the most just and the most beneficial proposal, no matter from what quarter it came, or by whom it was supported. These were the men worthy of the honorable function to which they had been called, who made the few good laws that proceeded from the Constituent Assembly; it was they who prevented all the mischief that was not done by it. Invariably adopting what was good, as invariably opposing what was bad, they have frequently produced a majority in favor of resolutions, which, but for them, would have been rejected from a spirit of faction; and they have often defeated motions, which, but for them, would have been adopted from a spirit of interest." This class of deputies was unquestionably "the Earth" -- the ascended political witnesses of Jesus. Of "their enemies," Ferrieres writes as follows: "While on this subject," says he, "I cannot abstain from remarking on the impolitic conduct of the nobles and the bishops. As they aimed only to dissolve the Assembly, to throw discredit upon its operations, instead of opposing mischievous measures, they manifested an indifference upon this point which is inconceivable. When the president stated the question they quitted the Hall, inviting the deputies of their party to follow them; or, if they stayed, they called out to them to take no part in the deliberation. The Clubbists, forming through this dereliction of duty a majority of the Assembly, carried every resolution they pleased. The bishops and the nobles, firmly believing that the new order of things would not last, hastened with a sort of impatience, as if determined to accelerate the downfall, both the ruin of the monarchy and their own ruin. With this senseless conduct they combined an insulting disdain both of the assembly and of the people who attended the sittings. Instead of listening, they laughed and talked aloud, thus confirming the people in their unfavorable opinion which it had conceived of them; and instead of striving to recover its confidence and esteem, they strove only to gain its hatred and contempt. All these follies arose solely from the mistaken notions of the bishops and nobles, who could not persuade themselves that the Revolution had long been effected in the opinion and in the heart of every Frenchman. They hoped by means of these dykes, to set bounds to a torrent that was daily swelling. All they did served only to produce a greater accumulation of its waters, to occasion greater ravages; obstinately clinging to the old system, the basis of all their actions, of all their opposition, but which was repudiated by all. By this impolitic obstinacy they forced the Revolutionists to extend the Revolution beyond the goal they had set up for themselves. The nobles and the bishops then exclaimed against injustice and tyranny. They talked of the antiquity and the legitimacy of their rights to men who had sapped the foundations of all rights." The "Great Voice" from the French throne, in commanding this Cloud of Deputies to ascend into the region of power, or "heaven," did not intend to convoke witnesses against itself, and against the nobles, the bishops, and their dependents, the natural pillars of every abomination in church and state. The electoral body of the nation, however, had different views and purposes. In response to the "great voice out of the heaven, saying, Ascend hither!" the electors sent up some whom they knew not -- men of political integrity, lovers of justice, haters of oppression, detesters of hypocrisy and state craft, enemies of corruption, and friends of the people. These "ascended into the heaven in the cloud; and their enemies," the Court, the bishops, and the nobles, "beheld them." We have seen from Ferrieres, how they "beheld them"; and how they treated them. They beheld them with hatred; and would gladly, if they had been able, have scattered, and rolled them into the dust of "the earth," whence they had so astoundingly ascended to the sovereignty of the nation. But this was not to be. The day of vengeance for the national crimes of 1572 and 1685, had arrived; and they were the divinely appointed executioners of judgment upon the court, aristocracy and clergy; so that no device contrived against them was allowed to prosper. When their enemies beheld them, their hatred was the result of fear. History and prophecy both testify this. "Great fear," says John, "fell upon those who beheld them." Having resolved themselves into the National Assembly without regard to the court, aristocracy, and clergy, they performed an act of power, in legalizing the levy of the taxes, though imposed without the national consent; but that they should cease to be levied from the day of their being broken up: and placed the creditors of the State under the safeguard of French integrity: they then proceeded to examine into the causes of the dearth and of the public distress. "These measures," says Thiers, "produced a deep impression. The court and higher orders were alarmed at such courage and energy." The danger was equal for them all. The junction of the clergy with the Assembly was a revolution as prejudicial to the king as to the two higher orders themselves, whom the commons declared that they could dispense with. By the imprudent counsel of the aristocracy, the king endeavored to prevent the meeting of the Assembly, but failed. On June 23, he held a royal sitting, in which, as the mouth of the nobles and clergy, he launched reproaches and issued his commands, which, if not obeyed, he would establish by his sole authority as the representative of the nation. He ordered the Assembly to separate immediately. The nobility obeyed with part of the clergy: but the Commons had bound themselves with an oath, that they would not separate until they had given a constitution to the kingdom, established and founded on a solid basis; and this oath, they declared that nothing but the power of bayonets should prevent them from keeping. The populace applauded the Commons; and the joy of the court and aristocracy was instantly turned into alarm, and the greatest agitation. A minority of the nobles joined the Assembly; but terror seized those who directed the majority. They were exhorted by the court to give way to save the king. Their consent was at length extorted amidst uproar; and the majority, accompanied with the minority of the clergy, took their seats in the National Assembly on the 27th of June. "The family," said President Bailly, "is complete. We can now attend without intermission and without distraction to the regeneration of the kingdom and of the public weal." Thus great fear fell on their enemies when they beheld them. 8. "The Great Earthquake" "And in that hour there was a great earthquake, and the Tenth of the City fell." An earthquake, in symbolic language, is a shaking of "the earth," which, in the political system of the world, is representative of the common people. It answers to the phrase, a democratic and social revolution. There was to be a Great Democratic Revolution "in that hour," characterized by the ascent of the political witnesses of Jesus "in the Cloud" of Deputies "into the heaven," to the great alarm of all interested in the abuses and corruptions of Church and State. The events of that hour have since come to be spoken of as "the Great French Revolution," which has hitherto surpassed all others. As the result of this great political convulsion, "the Tenth of the City fell." Not the other nine tenths of the Great City, which would have been the fall of the Great City itself; but of one tenth thereof. All the tenths are to continue unfallen, with the exception of the tenth before us, until after the advent of Christ, and the resurrection of his brethen. Then the Great City itself will fall, and be "found no more at all." Its thrones will all be "cast down," and not merely shaken; and the kingdoms which acknowledged their sovereignty will be taken possession of by Christ and his resurrected brethren. The ten tenths of the Great City are symbolized in Daniel by the Ten Toes of the metallic image seen by Nebuchadnezzar; and by the Ten Horns seen by Daniel and John in their visions of the Fourth-Beast system of powers, commonly styled the European Commonwealth, acknowledging the Papal Supremacy. They are the Ten Kingdoms of the Great City, situated south and west of the Rhine and Danube. Until the late temporary development of the Kingdom of Italy, and as the result of the Treaty of Vienna a.d. 1815, modified by the revolution of 1832, they were Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Bavaria, Hungary, Lombardy, Naples, and Sardinia. The Italian Duchies, Venice, and Switzerland, though upon the territory of the Great City, are not reckoned as horns, because their executives are not diademed. The order of things existing in 1865 is exceptional, and therefore only provisional. Bavaria, Hungary, and Lombardy, with the Roman States of the Church, are concorded with the Little Horn, or Catholic Germany. This symbolic order, however, is disturbed by the ambition of "the Earth," or revolutionary element of the Great City. Lombardy, Naples, and Sardinia, with the Duchies, and without Rome, is the unsymbolic order of things; and with France imperial instead of a simple diademed tenth. This arrangement of the city, I apprehend, will not last long. It contains in it elements of conflict, which will probably result in a threefold division of powers, after the advent of Christ (Apoc. 16:19). Nevertheless, these powers continue to be styled "the ten horns, or kingdoms, which receive power as kings one hour with the beast; to whom, with one mind, they give their power and strength" (Apoc. 17:12, 13). Ten has been the predominant number of the papal kingdoms; and, therefore, though they may vary at times, as the vision does not follow them in all their history, they are symbolically indicated as the Ten. Of these, France is the most conspicuous in its relation to the witnesses. It is therefore styled kat exochen, "the Tenth of the City," which was overthrown as a Diademed Horn by the executioners of the national justice upon the king, nobles and clergy -- the class-murderers of the saints. Celebrated procession of the States General in Versailles. The members of each order were separated by the distinguishing dress they were compelled to wear. But when the deputies of the Commons failed to obtain from the King the concessions they demanded, they made their way to an indoor tennis-court where they took an oath "never to separate" until an acceptable constitution was established "on solid foundations" for proper and equitable government of the nation. Made fearful by this show of force, the King agreed to grant concessions. Thus "they (the representative of the people) ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them" (Rev. 11:12). 9. "In that Hour" A period is herein allotted for the operations of "the Earth" upon the powers of the City. It is indicated by an hour; which, being a twelfth part of a Jewish circle of time, if that circle be a day for a year, would represent a month of days, or thirty days; or if a a year-time of years, a month of years, or thirty years. I believe this is the proportional allotment of time for the earthquake and the events of the first five vials resulting from it. The court, the nobles, the clergy, and the catholic superstition, were the chief objects of vengeance, and indignation in the earthquake. The epoch from 1789-'90 to a.d. 1794-'5, a period of about four years, was the epoch of this terrible earthquake, in which was demolished the order of things so carefully established in favor of the church by the emperor Justinian, whose Code was the civil law code of the kingdom of France. This code was first promulgated in the epoch between a.d. 529-534. The code was a summary of former laws that still continued in force; the pandects published four years afterwards, of the principles of the Roman jurisprudence; and the novels were Justinian's additions. These altogether made up the Civil Law of the Great City. Justinian's Decretal Letter to "John, the Most Holy Archbishop of the sacred city Rome, and Patriarch," dated March, a.d. 533, became thenceforth part of the civil law. In this the Roman See was recognized as the chief in all his dominion; and its bishop consequently as the head of all the churches, and to be judged by none. In those days, "magistrates were tyrants, and priests were wicked, superstitious, and intolerant, beyond any former age. Numberless laws and regulations were imposed in violation of Christ's authority, which defaced christianity, and robbed christians of their dearest liberties. By Justinian's Code those powers, privileges, and immunities were secured to the clergy; that union established between things civil and ecclesiastical, and those laws imposed in matters spiritual, which have proved such a hindrance to the truth, and so calamitous to mankind. Through the zeal of the clergy this code has been received, more or less, as the foundation of the jurisprudence of almost every state in christendom; and that, not only in things civil, but ecclesiastical; and by this means, as some author has observed, the old fancy of the Romans about the eternity of their command, is thus far verified." Thus Justinian's legislation was all devoted to the building up and strengthening of the Catholic Church; while the legislation of the National Assembly was all directed to its destruction. It is a remarkable fact, that these two mutually antagonistic and subversive systems of legislation flourished exactly 1260 years apart from epoch to epoch; and that the one hour of 30 years added to it, or 1290, brings us to the beginning of the outpouring of the Sixth Vial, a.d. 1820, upon "the Great River Euphrates;" the drying up of whose waters prepares the way of the Sun's Resurrected Kings for the destruction of the Great City, and the redemption of the Holy Land. Is this, indeed, the true ending of Daniel's 1290? And if so, is a.d. 1865-6 the ending of the 1335, as well as of John's "forty and two months"? If it be, then there is an epoch upon us of four years, in any day of which Christ may "come as a thief" (Apoc. 16:15): to enter upon a work which will not intermit until it has fully established the kingdom at the end of Micah's period of forty years, about a.d. 1905. This appears to me, at this writing, to be the correct interpretation of the times. It is, of course, impossible to say that the interpretation is without error. The ensuing years will determine this point beyond dispute. While I write, it is the most satisfactory to my own mind. I have thought, that Daniel's 1290 terminated in 1864; and his 1335 in 1909. But in writing the exposition of this chapter, the fact of the Great Earthquake-resurrection of the witnesses being exactly 1260 years after the promulgation of the civil law of the City; and the Hour of 30 years added, bringing us to the beginning of "the pouring out upon the Desolator of the Holy Land that determined" (Dan. 9:27), or 1290 years afterwards -- I do not feel at liberty to persist in rejecting my original conviction, that the 1290 ends in 1820; and the 1335 forty-five years after, or in the epoch current with 1865-6, or thereabout. Besides that, the same evidence that limits the termination of the Holy City's "forty and two months," also confines the 1335 days to the event of the resurrection. John's symbolical "rising up" measures the continuance of the forty and two months practising (poiesai, to execute, practise, act) of the Beast's Mouth to the subjection, or trampling, of the Holy City (ch. 11:2; 13:5): even so Daniel's rising up measures the utmost limit of the 1335 days; concerning which he was told, "thou shalt arise (tiamod) to thine inheritance at the end of the days." In view, therefore, of all the premises, I submit the following as a 10. Synopsis of the Times of Daniel and John Before Christ Beginning of the Seven Times of the Babylonian Tree, or 2520 years of the Kingdom of Men from the 1st of Nebuchadnezzar -- Dan. 4:16, 23 612 Beginning of the Evening-Morning treading under foot of the holy and the host, or Septuagintal 2400 years in "the third year of Cyrus," being the first of his sole reign 540 Beginning of the Seventy Weeks, or 490 years, in the 20th Artaxerxes Longimanus, king of Persia 456 After Christ End of the 70 weeks at "the cutting off of Messiah" Beginning of the "time, times, and dividing of a time" when the Saints were imperially "given into the hand" of the Episcopal Mouth of the Little Horn by the Civil Power -- Dan. 7:25; identical with the Forty and Two months of Apoc. 11:2; 13:5; in the Phocan Epoch 604-'8 Beginning of the "time, times, and a half," sworn to by the "Man clothed in linen" (Dan. 12:7); and by the Rainbowed Angel, saying, that "the time shall be no longer" (Apoc. 10:6); which personages are identical 604-'8 Beginning of the "abomination making desolate 1290" years (Dan. 12:11; in the Justinian Epoch 531 Beginning of the 1335 day-years in the Justinian Epoch; they extend to "the time of the dead" when Daniel and John rise to the inheritance (Dan. 12:12, 13) 531 The Man-Child of Sin "revealed," being born of the Imperialized Woman at the end of a gestation of nine months, or 280 day-years (Apoc. 12:2, 5); in the Donatist Epoch, in which the Sealing begins (ch. 7:3); and the flying into the wilderness ensues (ch. 12:6, 14) 312-'16 "Silence in the Heaven about half an hour" begins 324 Beginning of a gestative period of 280 years, made notable by the Constantinian, or Laodicean, Pentecost, styled the Council of Nice 325 The Silence in the Heaven ends at the death of the emperor Constantine 337 10. The "God of the Earth" fully "revealed" in Rome in the Phocan Epoch, 280 years after the Council of Nice (Dan. 11:36-39) 605-'6 11. Beginning of the first period of "five months" appropriated to the tormentation of the unsealed by the Saracens (Apoc. 9:4-6) 632 12. Beginning of the second "five months" at the end of the first (Apoc. 9:10) 782 13. End of the second five months, 300 years after the beginning of the first, marked by the fall of Caliphs 932 14. Beginning of "the hour, day, month, and year", or 391 years and 30 days, appropriated to the subversion of the Greek Catholic Empire, or third of the Roman orb (Apoc. 9:15) April 29 1062 15. End of the 391 years and 30 days, signalized by the capture of Constantinople by the fourth Euphratean angel, or Ottoman, power May 29 1453 16. "The Remnant of the Woman's Seed" stands first before the Dragon, and afterwards before "the God of the Earth;" in all, "a time, times, and a half a time," or 1260 day-years (Apoc. 11:3; 12:6, 14, 17; which end with the beginning of the war upon the witnesses, waged against them by the Mouth of Blasphemy (Apoc. 13:5, 7); in the St. Bartholomew Epoch 1572-'6 17. The war against the witnesses having continued 113 years, they are "prevailed against," or "overcome and killed," at the Revocation of the edict of Nantes (Dan. 7:21; Apoc. 11:7; 13:7) 1685 18. Having lain unburied corpses in the Breadth of the Great City "three days and a half," or 105 years, the witnesses stand alive again upon their feet, and ascend into the heaven in the French revolutionary epoch, 1260 years from the Justinian (Apoc. 11:9, 11, 12) 1789 19. End of the period of 1290 years of abomination making desolate, signalized by the beginning of the outpouring, in the Greek revolutionary epoch, of "that determined upon the Desolator" of the Holy Land (Dan. 9:27); in the commencement of the Sixth Vial at the end of the Hour of Apoc. 11:13 1821 20. End of the Evening-Morning of 2400 years; notably signalized by the immediately succeeding quinquennial epoch of the American Civil, the Franco-Mexican, the Russo-Polish, and the Austro-Russian Danish, wars; with financial perplexity, the worst of which has not yet been seen 1860 21. End of the 42 months of Apoc. 11:2; 13:5, the terminus of the temple and altar measurement; also the end of the "time" -- chronon -- sworn to by the Rainbowed Angel; that is, of the "time, times, and a half" sworn to by the "Man clothed in linen;" and of the 1335 day-years in the current epoch (Apoc. 10:6; Dan. 7:25; 12:7, 12) 1864-'8 22. "The Time of the End." A period of 40 years -- Micah 7:15: in which the Rainbowed Angel finishes the Mystery of the Deity as declared in the Gospel of the Kingdom 23. The terminal epoch of Micah's 40 years, and of the Seven Times, or 2520 years, from the 1st 11. Initial and Terminal Prophetic Epochs The Donatist Epoch, a period of three years, signalized by the Donatist Trials and their condemnation by Constantine 312-'16 The Justinian Epoch, a period of four years, signalized by the promulgation of the Civil Law of the Great City; and by great desolation in the Holy Land 529-'34 The Phocan Epoch, a period of four years, signalized by the Bishop of Rome being recognized as Supreme Pontiff by the emperor Phocas 604-'8 The St. Bartholomew Epoch, signalized by massacre and war upon the Huguenots on the day of that Romish saint 1572-'6 The French Revolutionary Epoch, a period of about five years, signalized by the fall of the French Monarchy and the Reign of Terror 1789-94 The Current Epoch, a period incomplete, and signalized by the American Civil and other wars; to be followed by the development of the Roman Question at the close of 1866 1860-67 The Terminal Micah Epoch, a period at the end of the ensuing 40 years adjusting the difference between that end and the end of the 2520 years 1905-'8 The Post Resurrectional Epoch, a few years at the end of the Millennium, styled "a little season," finishing the Millennary Week of 7000 years from the Creation 12. Of the 2400 It may be as well to state here in relation to the number in Dan. 8:14, that there are various readings of the text. In some manuscripts seen by Jerome in the 4th century, the number was written 2200. The English Version on his authority reads 2300. But in the Septuagint, translated from the Hebrew, about 265 years before the birth of Jesus, for the use of the Jews in Egypt, who spoke Greek, the number is written 2400. Here, then, are three different periods assigned to the duration of the ld;evening-morning" trampling of the Holy and the Host by the Little Horn of the Goat -- 2200, 2300, and 2400. Which of these is correct? As to the 2400, it does not depend alone upon what some regard as the questionable authority of the Septuagint. The celebrated missionary, Joseph Wolff, states that the Jews of Ispahan and Bokhara possess some ancient manuscripts of the prophetic writings of Daniel, in which chapter 8:14, reads "2400 instead of 2300 days;" also, that, when in Adrianople, in 1826, he saw an Armenian manuscript of the Bible in Greek, supposed to be of the fifth century, and translated by Mesrop, in which the same number occurs." The greater number of manuscripts read 2300. This, however, proves nothing more than the fact, that 2400, like the truth, is in the minority. "The authorities" and "competent judges," as they are regarded by Laodiceans without authority and incompetent, are most of them in favor of the 2300. They reject the testimony of the Septuagint as a typographical error; but this objection will not hold against the manuscripts seen by Wolff, which "the authorities" and "competent judges" have not hitherto succeeded, if they have attempted even, in convicting of error. What is the correct reading of the number must be determined by something more reliable than Laodicean "authority." Only one of the three readings can be right; and it is not to be supposed, considering the carefulness with which the Hebrew text was preserved, that they are all wrong. The probability is, that some manuscripts were corrupted in, or soon after, the reign of "Antiochus Epiphanes, the Jewish Antichrist," so-called, in order to make out a theory of the fulfilment of "the Vision of the Evening-Morning," in his persecution of the Jews! The 2400 period was too long for the theory, and was probably shortened to suit; hence, the 2300; and, as the theory was "orthodox," and adopted by the leaders of the catholic idolatry as the true interpretation, of the prophecy, and by them handed down to the present generation of the children of the Great Harlot, as proved by the writings of Rollin, Maitland, Moses Stuart, and so forth, the number, as an essential element of the theory, was patronized by "the authorities" and "competent judges" of the divinely excommunicated court, who, in the multiplication of manuscripts, are careful to insert 2300 instead of 2400. Be this, however, as it may, the question with us is not so much how came the error, but what is the truth in the case? This is what I shall try to get at; and, in so doing, I remark, that it appears to me that the solution of the difficulty depends upon the working of the matter by a correct rule of interpretation. My rule or reed, then, is this, that the time of the Vision must be calculated from the first event symbolized in the vision. I see no flaw in this rule. I can see no reason why any of the events symbolically represented should be left out of the time given, whatever it may be. The time of the vision is the 2200, 2300, or 2400, as may be determined. Many affirm (and I was once of the same opinion, when I took for granted the correctness of the English text) that the commencement of the Seventy Weeks was the beginning also of the time of the vision, b.c. 456. But to begin at this date would be to exclude the symbolical events of over eighty years. Why should they be excluded from the time of the vision? I can see no reason for such exclusion; and, therefore, cannot consent to it. Besides this, it terminates too soon. This will appear from the Hebrew text, l'eth-kaitz h'khazon, "to the time of the end the vision." The vision is to extend to the epoch of the manifestation of "the appearance of a man," answering to the symbolism exhibited in Dan. 8:15-18; 10:5, 6; when "the Holy shall be vindicated," or avenged -- ch. 8:14. If 2300 be assumed as correct, then, commencing as above, it terminated in the vulgar era 1843. This was twenty-two years ago; too long an interval for a correct ending. The Man has not appeared, nor has the Holy been justified, cleansed, vindicated, or avenged, in any sense. I therefore conclude that this beginning and ending in connexion with the 2300 is a mistake. My rule excludes the idea of the time of the vision beginning with "the going forth of a commandment for causing to return, and for building Jerusalem," in the 20th of Artaxerxes, b.c. 456. This commencement was assumed on the ground of the word, nekhtak, rendered in the English Version, "are determined," signifying, cut off. It is true that this is one of its meanings; but it also signifies cut upon, or notched, divided, decided, decreed, determined. Sir Isaac Newton has the following note upon the word: "Cut upon -- A phrase in Hebrew, taken from the practice of numbering by cutting notches." The word in the prophecy for "cut off," is yikkaraith -- ver. 26. The Seventy Weeks were divided off from the time of the vision; but not necessarily from its first years. If a reed of any length represents the time of the vision, the most that can be argued from the cutting import of the word is, that the seventy weeks, or 490 years, were notched into the reed -- that they were placed between two notches; of which, the first answered to the decree of Artaxerxes; and the second, to the "cutting off of Messiah" by crucifixion. But decreed, or determined, in the sense of divided or apportioned, is doubtless the sense of the word in this the only place it occurs in the book. Seventy weeks are apportioned out of the time of the vision for the development of certain specified events. Hence, their beginning or ending affects only themselves; and the commencement of the time of the vision must be sought for elsewhere. Seeing, then, that it is reasonable that all the events of the vision should be included in the time of the vision, I am prompted to inquire, what was the first event symbolized in the Evening-Morning vision? The answer to this is in the words of Daniel: "The higher horn of the ram came up last." This was the first event symbolized. It represented the Persian Dynasty of the Ram Empire succeeding the Median. Darius and Cyrus reigned conjointly in Babylonia two years, when Darius the Mede died, and Cyrus the Persian became sole ruler, b.c. 540. This was the third year of Cyrus from the death of Belshazzar; the first from the death of Darius (Dan. 1:21; 10:1). Now, if this be admitted as the commencement of the time of the vision, it is fatal to the claims of the 2300; for this number, calculated from b.c. 540, would end; a.d. 1760, since which year over a hundred years have elapsed, in no part of which has the trampling of the Holy and the Host been finished, nor the Holy avenged. For this reason, then, I reject the 2300 as spurious; and if so, I can have nothing to say for the 2200, which, by the same rule, terminated two hundred years ago. What then remains? One thing only, and that is, if my rule of interpretation be correct, that the 2400 is the best reading of the three, and alone worthy of all reception. Adopting this as the true time, we are brought by it to a.d. 1860-'1, which is the ending of the 2400th year. If I am right, a.d. 1865 is hard on the beginning of "the time of the end," styled by John "the Hour of Judgment." The numbers of Daniel and John all seem to terminate in the epoch now upon us. After the 2400 is finished, "the appearance of the Man clothed in linen," "the voice of whose words is the voice of a multitude," transpires, judgment is given to them, and the Holy is avenged; but how long exactly intervenes between the end of the 2400 and his appearing "as a thief," I see no evidence to prove. The vision, of which the 2400 is the time, is styled "the vision of the evening and the morning," in allusion to "the daily," which was offered in sacrifice every evening and morning under the law. No movement was to take place for its restoration until the end of a day of 2400 years. That end seems to have arrived, and with it the end of Daniel's "time, times, and a dividing of time," the 1335 days, and John's "forty and two months." I therefore now look for the advent of Christ, and the resurrection, at any time within the epoch ending in a very little season. 13. "The Tenth of the City Fell" The object for which "the Earth" had exhaled from its stratum the Cloud of Deputies in response to the Royal Edict, saying, "Ascend hither!" was the establishment of a Constitution. The instruction given to its deputies energetically expressed its demand for this, with the understanding that the new government was to be monarchical and hereditary. The constituents of the deputies were all agreed in desiring the regeneration of France; and the whole French nation claimed with energy the rights of the citizen, liberty, and property, and the free communication of thought. It insisted on being free; and "the genius of France," says Clermont-Tonnerre, "hurried, as it were, the march of the public mind; and had accumulated for it in a few hours the experience which could scarcely be expected from many centuries." Clermont-Tonnerre's "Genius of France," was John's "Spirit of Life from God." It was this that "hurried on the march of the public mind," and gave it a certain amount of wisdom for the crisis beyond its experience of ages. But the instability of the king, and the infatuation of the court and aristocracy, proved an obstacle quite insurmountable by a wise moral force, and precipitated events which threatened, and at length effected, their destruction. Had the estates of the kingdom been left to their own action, the result would probably have been in favor of the old abuses; but there were forces exterior to these orders, vigilantly observing the course of events, and ever ready to shape them into the direction it was considered they ought to go for the development of the public good. These forces were famine and the fury of the people worked by agents invisible and unknown. The parliaments, the nobility, the clergy, the court, all threatened with the same ruin, had united their interests, and acted in concert. They were all pervaded with consternation mingled with despair. Their policy was to have the people commit as much evil as possible, that what they called good might be brought about by the very excess of that evil. In promotion, therefore, of this "political pessimism," compounded of spite and perfidy, the aristocracy began from the time of the capture of the Bastile to co-operate with the most violent members of the popular party. Under the influence of these antagonist forces, unexpected events would result to the astonishment and dismay of all parties. The agitation was general. A sudden terror had spread itself everywhere. On the night between July 14 and 15, Paris was to be attacked on seven points, and the National Assembly dissolved. The treachery of the court was revealed by its imprudence, and effectually defeated by the fury of the people, who stormed the Bastile, July 14, 1789, and caused the Assembly to triumph over its enemies. But the reconciliation was only transitory. The court resumed its pride, and the people its distrust; and implacable hatred recommenced its course. Atrocious outrages were committed throughout the whole kingdom, which were rather increased than pacified by the spontaneous abolition of the feudal system, and the tithes without redemption. The king, who sanctioned this revolution, accepted the flattering but undeserved title of "the Restorer of French Liberty." His was a struggle of power against liberty; and every concession was a victory gained by the people, and one step nearer the precipice over which "the Tenth of the City" was doomed to fall. The Storming of the Bastille in Paris The work upon which the National Assembly was now engaged was the New Constitution. "The nation wills, the king executes:" these were its simple elements, and they imagined that they wished for a monarchy, because they left a king as the executor of the national resolve. Real monarchy is the rule of one, to which limits are set by means of the national concurrence. There the will of the prince in reality does almost every thing. But the moment the nation can order what it pleases, without the king having the power to oppose it by a veto, the king is not more than a magistrate. It is then a republic with one consul instead of several. Such was the monarchy existing in men's opinions; and they were republicans without being aware of it. But events were too slow for the impatient populace; for while the court and the aristocracy were intriguing, and the National Assembly discussing, the people were crying for bread. The mob determined to go to Versailles, and call the king and Assembly to account for their hesitation to secure the welfare of the people. From all quarters was heard the cry of "The king to Paris!" which the aristocracy proposed to prevent by carrying him off to Metz where, in a fortress, the court might order what it pleased. All were in commotion. Paris poured forth its thousands, and attacked the palace of the king, whose foreign mercenaries would have been massacred but for the interposition of Lafayette. With frightful howlings, the mob demanded the removal of the royal family to Paris. At length they were gratified, and the procession started. "I hope," says Lavallette, "such a scene will never be witnessed again!" It was the conveyance of the royal representatives of Charles IX., his Queen-Mother, and Louis XIV., the sanguinary murderers of the witnesses of Jesus, prisoners of a mob as ferocious as they, to the place of their future execution. "These madmen, dancing in the mire and covered with mud, surrounded the king's coach. The foremost groups carried on long pikes the bloody heads of the life-guardsmen butchered in the morning. A group of women, ugly as crime itself, swarming like insects, and wearing grenadier's hairy caps, went to and fro, howling barbarous songs. Several of these abandoned women, drunk with wine and fury, rode astride upon the cannon, celebrating by their abominable howlings all the crimes they had committed or witnessed. Others, near the king's carriage were singing allegorical airs, and, by their gross gestures, applying the insulting allusions in them to the Queen. In the transports of their brutal joy, the women stopped the passers by, and yelled in their ears, while pointing to the royal carriage: 'Courage, my friends; we shall have plenty of bread now that we have got the baker, the baker's wife, and the baker's boy.' This scene lasted for eight hours before the royal family arrived at the Place de Greve. They alighted at the Hotel de Ville, their first resting-place during protracted misery, that terminated afterwards in a horrible death. Thus ended the memorable 6th of October, 1789." The new constitution being finished, it was sworn to by all parties on the anniversary of the destruction of the Bastile, July 14, 1790. Having concluded its labors, the National Constituent Assembly was replaced by the Legislative Assembly. The members of this body were of opinion that enough had not yet been done. Their minds were incessantly recurring to the idea of a republic. The National Assembly had changed an absolute monarchical despotism into a constitutional and very limited monarchy, but the hot-headed republicans of the new legislature, who occupied the highest benches, and thence denominated The Mountain, were all-powerful in the clubs and among the populace, and were determined to be satisfied with nothing short of the abolition of monarchy as an expensive and useless pageant. The policy of the Legislative Assembly was the curtailing of the prerogatives of Royalty. Its predecessor had already wrested from the king the privilege of pardoning criminals. It continued the work by decreeing that he should no longer be addressed by the titles Sire and Your Majesty; and, on August 11, 1792, they suspended him, and formed an Executive Council to exercise his constitutional functions; and, on August 13, imprisoned him and the rest of the royal family in the Temple. The Legislative Assembly held its first sitting October 1, 1791. It passed 2,140 decrees relative to administration or legislation, and closed its labor without abolishing monarchy, September 21, 1792. During the brief reign of this Assembly some very exciting events had transpired in the history of the King. He considered himself as a prisoner in the hands of his enemies; more especially since the failure of his attempt to establish himself and family at Montmady. He had fled with them in disguise from Paris; but was recaptured at Verennes, whence he was brought back by the populace with ignominy. On June 20, 1792, the mob invaded his palace in great tumult and in arms to lay before him their remonstrances. They highly disapproved of his use of the veto, and demanded that he should sanction the decrees of the Legislative Assembly against the priests, and for the formation of a camp of 20,000 men, for the defence of Paris against foreign enemies. But the king, true to the catholic instincts of his blood-stained dynasty, was indisposed to endorse the decrees which expelled non-juring priests from France, and demanded a vigorous prosecution of hostilities against foreign powers, upon whose success against the revolutionary "earth" he looked for deliverance and restoration to his former despotic authority. He regarded the revolution as merely a transient popular movement that would soon be stopped by a few victories of the invaders. Neither he nor his Queen, Marie Antoinette, could be persuaded of the truth of Dumouriez's words, that the movement was "an almost unanimous insurrection of a mighty nation against inveterate abuses, the flame of which was fanned by great factions." "Thus, by a kind of fatality," says Thiers -- yes, a fatality, apocalyptically registered, decreeing the fall of "the Tenth of the City" -- by this fatality "the supposed intentions of the palace excited the distrust and fury of the people, and the uproar of the people increased the anxiety and the imprudence of the palace. Despair therefore reigned within and without." Utter detestation of royalty moved the heart of the abyss. "You see me very sad," said the Queen to Dumouriez. "I dare not approach the palace window which looks into the garden. Yesterday evening I went to the window towards the court just to take a little air. A gunner of the guard addressed me in terms of vulgar abuse, adding, 'How I should like to see your head on the point of my bayonet.' In this horrid garden you see on one side a man mounted on a chair, reading aloud the most abominable calumnies against us; on the other, a military man or an abbe, dragged through one of the basins, overwhelmed with abuse, and beaten; whilst others are playing at ball, or quietly walking about. What an abode! What a people!" On 5th October 1789, some hundreds of women wild with fury through hunger and frustration seized weapons and marched to Versailles where the King and his family were staying. They demanded bread, and insisted upon the King and his family returning to Paris. The above is a contemporary print depicting them departing on their mission. The King arriving at the Hotel de Ville on 6th October. He and his family returned in the royal carriage, but ended on the scaffold of the guillotine. His death ended an epoch for France, for Europe, and for the world. Out of the French Revolution emerged the spirit of Communism that has influenced world politics since. The Girondins, who were enthusiasts for liberty and philosophy, ruled in the Legislative Assembly. They despaired of the king's sincerity. Therefore, having Paris at their back, they determined to make their party master of the king, and to forestall his suspicious intentions. Through Roland they declared to the king that "the declaration of rights is become a political gospel, and the French constitution a religion for which the people are ready to perish. That all attacks made upon it are but means of kindling enthusiasm in its behalf. That it was too late to recede, and that means of temporizing no longer exist. That the Revolution was accomplished in men's minds, and would be consummated at the expense of their blood, and cemented with it, if prudence did not prevent the calamities which it was yet possible to avoid. Gracious Heaven!" exclaimed they, "hast thou stricken with blindness the powers of the earth, and are they never to have any counsel but such as shall lead them to perdition!" The combat had now commenced between the Girondins and the Court -- a combat which was for life or death. Lafayette, who was a constitutionalist, offered to deliver the king from his enemies by an armed rescue. But the king and queen refused to be saved by him a second time, hoping that salvation would come from the occupation of Paris by Austrian and Prussian troops. The discovery of Lafayette's intrigue made the popular party absolutely desperate, and it resolved to strike a blow at the court before it could carry into execution the plots of which it was accused. June 20, 1792, was the insurrection of the Sans Culottes. They bore flags inscribed with the words, "The Constitution or Death." Ragged breeches were held up in the air with shouts of Vivent les sans-culottes! Besides which an atrocious sign was displayed to add ferocity to the whimsicality of the spectacle. On the point of a pike was borne a calfs heart, with the inscription, "Heart of an Aristocrat." The court had called in the disciplined barbarians of the North, by which its adversaries were stirred up to call in those other undisciplined barbarians, who by turns merry and ferocious, abound in the heart of cities, and remain sunk in depravity amid the most polished civilization. This motley multitude filed by thousands through the Legislative Hall, and there forcibly intruded themselves upon the king, whom they compelled to don the red Phrygian "cap of liberty." He consented to hear them read their petition. This terrible lecture of the rabble was listened to amid uproar and shouts, and the oft-repeated cries of "No Veto," "No Priests," "No Aristocrats!" "The Camp near Paris!" At length, in the evening, these unwelcome visitors were persuaded to retire in peace and order. He was immediately rejoined by his family. Tears flowed copiously from these royal constituents of "the affrighted remnant" (ch. 11:13). The king, with the red cap still perched on the top of his wig, was overcome by the scene. Recollecting that the offensive symbol was still there, he flung it from him with indignation. The Queen perceived tears in the eyes of M. Thionville, a staunch republican deputy. "You weep," she said, "to see the king and his family treated so cruelly by a people whom he has always wished to render happy." "It is true, Madam," replied he, "I weep over the misfortunes of a beautiful, tender-hearted woman and mother of a family. But, do not mistake; there is not one of my tears for the king or the queen -- I hate kings and queens." The attacks against royalty were as yet only indirect. None seemed to be satisfied with the constitution. One party wished to modify it by the intervention of foreigners; the other to overthrow it by establishing a republic. The report of the committees on public affairs was alarming, and caused the Assembly, on July 11, to pronounce the solemn formula: "Citizens, the country is in danger!" The meaning of this was, that every one should now lay down his life in behalf of the State. The Revolutionary ardour was excited to the utmost. An universal phrenzy seized the public mind. The idea of declaring that the king had forfeited the crown, and of forcing him to abdicate, was regarded as the only possible remedy for the evils which threatened France. Many departments openly defied the authority of government, and without any orders sent their contingents to form the camp near Paris. This was the commencement of the revolt that overturned "the tenth of the Great City." Consternation pervaded the court, and a new trial of fortitude awaited the king. July 14, 1792, had arrived -- the anniversary of the destruction of the Bastile -- which was to be celebrated. An immense tree was planted by "the Earth," who styled it "the Tree of Feudalism." It bore on its branches crowns, blue ribbons, tiaras, cardinals' hats, St. Peter's keys, ermine mantles, doctors' caps, bags of law proceedings, titles of nobility, escutcheons, coats of arms, and so forth, and the king was invited to set fire to it. This, however, he declined, saying there was no longer any such thing as feudalism. The concourse of rabble, federalists from the provinces, and troops, was immense. No accident, however, occurred, and the king returned to the palace, glad at having escaped the dangers, which he conceived to be great, but alarmed at those he beheld approaching. Everything indicated a speedy revolution. The Girondins foresaw and wished for it; but they did not clearly distinguish the means, and dreaded the issue of it. The people accused them of indolence and incapacity. They were weary of eloquent speeches without result, and the leaders of the clubs and sections demanded an active and concentrated direction, that the popular efforts might not prove unavailing. This demand was supplied by a secret conclave styled the insurrectional committee. It was composed of Jacobins, who concerted the celebrated insurrection of the 10th of August, '92, "which was due," says Petion, "to the Guardian Genius which has constantly governed the destinies of France ever since the first meeting of its representatives" "the Spirit of Life from God." The plan definitely adopted was to set the people in motion, repair in arms to the palace, and to depose the king. On the 3rd of August, Petion, the Mayor of Paris, was directed to petition the Assembly in the name of the forty-eight sections of the city, to decree the dethronement of Louis XVI. The crisis was now approaching. Everything was arranged by the royalists for the king's flight, which at the last moment was frustrated by his refusal to fly. A general agitation pervaded Paris. The drum beat the call in all quarters. The cry, "To arms!" was raised, and the insurrection proclaimed on the 10th of August. The dismal sound of the tocsin pervaded the whole extent of the Capital. At length it reached the palace, proclaiming that the terrible night had come -- that fatal night of agitation and blood -- destined to be the last the monarch should pass in the palace of his ancestors, a sanguinary and cruel race. At dawn of day the palace was besieged by "the Earth," full of fury against the royal and courtly representatives of the murderers of the saints and witnesses of Jesus. The king had with him about nine hundred Swiss mercenaries, and more than one battalion of the national guard, besides a crowd of hangers-on about royalty. But he lacked the boldness necessary to use them with effect; and though it is said that the Queen presented a pistol angrily at him, and said to him, with energy, "Sire, it is time to show yourself!" it was found impossible to arouse him from that judicial infatuation sent upon him by the Divine Avenger of his own. Instead of staying to defend himself in the royal den of Charles IX. who, from its windows, had glutted his thirst for righteous blood in shooting Huguenot, men and women, while flying from their murderers in the streets, in 1572 -- Louis took refuge with his family in the midst of the Assembly. Soon after their arrival, the roar of cannon and the roll of musketry was heard. The massacre, retaliatory for that of St. Bartholomew's had begun. The resurrected witnesses were striking terror and dismay into the hearts of their enemies; and a most sanguinary combat raged. The Marseillais and Bretons, boiling with fury, rushed forward with ardor, fell in great numbers, but at length made themselves masters-of the palace. The rabble, with pikes, poured in after them, and the rest of the scene was one general massacre. They put to death every person without distinction. Streams of blood flowed everywhere from the roofs to the cellars. All were butchered alike. It was scarcely possible to set foot anywhere without treading upon a dead body. Modesty forbids the description of the mutilation of the slain. Among the perpetrators of these atrocious deeds were found women! Every comer of the palace was plundered by the mob. Devastation and death everywhere prevailed. The butchery did not cease for hours. Carnage was the revelry of the day; and when "aristocrats" were no longer found, the rabble continued to drink blood in mutual slaughter; so that the mangled bodies of the seven hundred and fifty Swiss guards were covered with fresh heaps of the self-destroyed rabble. The Assembly anxiously awaited the issue of the combat. Shouts of victory at length arose from the populace, intoxicated with joy and fury. They soon filled the Hall, bringing with them plunder, and the few Swiss prisoners they had spared. The king and his family, cribbed and confined in the reporters' box, beheld in these trophies the ruin of their throne, and the joy of their conquerors. The reward of victory was the abolition of royalty. The Assembly dared not refuse this. The celebrated decree was therefore passed to the effect, that Louis XVI. is, for the time being suspended from royalty; A plan of education is directed for the Prince Royal; A national convention is convoked. The tumult continued to rage with extreme violence, and, in the opinion of the people it was not sufficient to have suspended royalty, it behoved them to destroy it. In their petitions they insisted that the suspension should be changed into dethronement. They were pacified with the assurance that a convention had been decreed to decide irrevocably the great question. In the meantime the Royal Family was imprisoned in the Temple. Forty days after this event, Sept. 20, the National Convention was constituted at the Tuileries. A new constitution was to be formed, based upon absolute equality, and the sovereignty of the people. After certain motions and decrees, the question of royalty was brought forward. It was insisted that its abolition should be forthwith pronounced. "The people," it was said, "had just been declared sovereign, but it will not be really so till delivered from a rival authority -- that of kings." The Assembly and the tribunes rose to express their unanimous reprobation of royalty. Discussion was proposed. "What need is there of discussion," it was objected, "when all are agreed? Courts are the hotbed of crime, the focus of corruption; the history of kings is the martyrology of nations. Discussion is not needed." Profound silence ensued, and by unanimous desire, the President of the National Convention declared that royalty was abolished in France. This decree was hailed with universal applause. It was then proposed not to date 1792 the year 4 of liberty, but the year 1 of The Republic. The year 1789, was no longer considered as having commenced liberty, and the new republican era began on that very day, Sept. 22, 1792; which was 1260 years from Justinian's delivery of the saints into the hands of the Supreme Pontiff of the Great City. 14. Seven Thousand Names of Men "And in the earthquake seven thousand names of men were put to death." In the English version this text reads, "were slain of men seven thousand." This error has probably crept in through editors not being able to conceive how names could be slain. They have therefore left onomata, names, out of the text, without any good reason. In my translation it is restored as indispensable to the right understanding of the prophecy. We have seen how "the Tenth of the City fell" by the concussion of "the Earth." It required the shocks of three entire years to level it with the ground. It was caused to fall by the shaking of "the Earth" in a special sense. It was the fury of the populace, excited and directed by an invisible agency, dictating its will to affrighted assemblies, that overthrew the monarchy. The assemblies left to themselves would not have found the courage needful for such a work. Their sympathy was with royalty even after Aug. 10. The decree of heaven, however, could not be circumvented. "The Earth" had no love for the power that had crushed it in 1685. It hated kings, and all that constituted the pillars of their thrones. It began its work by throwing down the pillars, and having removed these, abolished the throne, and ignominiously executed its incumbent. The aristocracies and hierarchy of a monarchy are its strongest supports. To these belong names of divers sorts. The names of aristocracy are the titled orders of nobility, such as dukes, marquises, counts, and such like, to which are attached feudal rights, privileges, and immunities, denied to the common people. Hierarchial names are representative of ecclesiastical orders and associations, which are known by their titles -- monks and priests, orders of men at once the creatures and supporters of despotism and superstition; the flatterers of princes, and the spoilers of the common people. To put these names to death would be to abolish them, both as to their associational existence, and the titles by which the classes of men, and the individuals of those classes, were distinguished. These names are put down at seven thousand. This is the symbolical number by which the real number is expressed -- a definite totality for an undefined whole; and equivalent to all orders of monks, priests, and nobles related to the Tenth Kingdom of the Papal City. Hence, the interpretation of the text is, that "in the insurrectional agitation of the democracy all the monastic and sacerdotal orders, together with all ranks and degrees of nobility, should be utterly abolished." Such is the prophecy; and we shall find, that in the epoch of the fall of the French Monarchy, the things predicted were literally and sanguinarily fulfilled. The destruction of the Bastile by the mob, and the excesses of the day, were a warning to the upper classes of their approaching ruin. Consternation, mingled with despair, pervaded them all. On the 4th of August, 1789, these disturbances and the means of putting an end to them, were discussed. Two of the nobility, members of the National Assembly, urged that it would be silly to employ force to quiet the people: that the right way would be to destroy the cause of their sufferings, and then the agitation which was the effect of them would instantly cease. They proposed the abolition of all feudal rights, which were frightfully oppressive. A sudden paroxysm of disinterestedness seized upon the Assembly, and everyone hurried to the tribune to renounce his privileges. A sort of intoxication seized all orders, all classes, all the possessors of prerogatives of every kind, who sought only to cast them all away. As the commons had no privileges to give up, they relinquished those of the provinces and the towns. The equality of rights was thus established between individuals and all parts of the French territory. The Assembly abolished tithes without redemption, and decreed the maintenance of the clergy by the State, which was very humiliating to their pride. The feudal system having been abolished, the Assembly proceeded to destroy those great bodies, or "names," which were enemies in the state against the state. The clergy possessed immense property, conferred on them by princes as feudal grants, or by the pious by way of legacy. Talleyrand, bishop of Autun, proposed to them to renounce the property of the ecclesiastical benefices in favor of the nation. The clergy, however, struggled against this proposition, but without effect. The Assembly decreed that all their possessions were at the disposal of the state; by which it destroyed their formidable power, and the luxury of the high dignitaries of the order; and secured those immense financial resources which so long upheld The Revolution. It declared also, that it ceased to recognize "religious vows," and restored liberty to all the inmates of cloisters. "From this moment," says Mignet: "The hatred of the clergy to the revolution broke forth. It had been less intractable than the noblesse at the commencement of the States General, in the hope of preserving its wealth; afterwards it showed itself not less opposed to the new regime." The exasperated clergy continued to excite disturbances throughout France. They deemed themselves sacrificed to the creditors of the state. Their property was ordered to be sold. Rendered desperate by the loss of the "filthy lucre" they adored, they circulated writings among the people, declaring that the plan of the revolutionists or John's resurrected and ascended witnesses, was to attack the catholic religion -- that great name by which they had their wealth; and whose functionaries had put them to death. They neglected no means to awaken the ancient fanaticism of Provence and Languedoc. The protestants of these parts excited the envy of the catholics, whose priests took advantage of the dissensions to widen the breach. In this spirit it was proposed in the Assembly to declare, that the catholic religion was the only religion of the State. An ecclesiastic threatened them with malediction for intending to abolish the catholic religion. This was denied. In the course of the debate Louis XIV. was mentioned. "I am not surprised," exclaimed Mirabeau, "that reference should be made to the reign in which the Edict of Nantes was revoked; but consider that, from this tribune whence I address you, I see that fatal window, where a king (Charles IX.), the murderer of his subjects, mingling worldly interests with those of religion, gave the signal for the massacre of St. Bartholomew!" The Assembly refused to make the declaration. The catholics and protestants had come to blows on the subject in the south; and the former were repulsed. But, while the clergy were filling up the measure of their fathers, the nobles were not forgotten. On June 19, 1790, it was proposed to abolish the titles of count, marquis, baron, etc.; to prohibit liveries; in short, to suppress all hereditary titles. A noble asked what they would substitute for the words, "Such an one was created count for service rendered to the state?" "Let it merely be said," replied Lafayette, "that on such a day such a person saved the State." The motion was carried, notwithstanding the extraordinary irritation of the nobility, which was more galled by the abolition of its titles than by the more substantial losses which it had sustained since the commencement of the revolution. The more moderate portion of the Assembly had proposed that, in abolishing titles, those who chose to retain them, should be at liberty to do so. Lafayette tried to procure its return for amendment; but the king instantly gave his sanction, with the disingenuous intention, as some supposed, of driving things to extremities. On July 30, 1791, decorations and orders of knighthood were suppressed; and to consummate the whole, the titles of Sire and Your Majesty were taken from the king. The Duke of Orleans assumed the name of Egalite, in English, Equality. Thus, all were reduced to an undistinguished multitude, having no pre-eminence to title one above another. Citizen and citizeness, was the designation common to all the French. "The clergy," says Thiers, "stripped of the immense possessions which had formerly been given to it, on condition of relieving the poor, whom it did not relieve, and of performing that worship which it left to be performed by poor curates, was no longer a political order. But its ecclesiastical dignities were preserved, its dogmas respected, its scandalous wealth changed into a sufficient, nay, we may say, an abundant revenue, for it still possessed considerable episcopal luxury." But the time had arrived in Nov. 1793, to substitute for the clerical system of blasphemy, another equally profane. The National Assembly had made the dioceses and the departments the same, and caused the bishops to be elective like all other functionaries. This was the civil constitution of the clergy to which they were obliged to bind themselves by oath. From that day a schism had taken place. Those who took the oath, were called constitutional priests; and those who refused so to do, refractory priests. These were condemned by the Convention to exile. At length people began to ask, why, when all the old monarchical superstitions were abolished, there should yet remain this clerical phantom, in which scarcely any one continued to believe? With the exception of reducing the pay of the bishops to the maximum of six thousand francs, the Convention kept silence upon the subject, leaving France to take the initiative in the abolition of this Great Name of Superstition by which it had been cursed for so many centuries. What the Convention feared to do, the Commune of Paris, less reserved, zealously undertook, and set the first example for the abjuration of the catholic worship of daemonials and idols. The dogma of the Commune was, that a nation ought to be governed by reason alone, and to allow no other worship, but that of reason. If they had gone a little further, and had said by reason enlightened by scripture truth, there could be no objection to the proposition, except from those who knew that the scriptures of truth and their systems are at variance. In the name of reason, then, the leaders of the municipality, Hebert and Chaumette, launched out against the publicity of the Romish mummery. A resolution was therefore obtained that the ministers of no religion should be allowed to exercise their worship out of the temples appropriated to it. Chaumette caused to be instituted new funeral ceremonies. The friends and relations alone were to accompany the coffin. All the religious emblems were to be suppressed in the cemeteries, and to be replaced by a statue of Sleep. Instead of cypress and doleful shrubs, the burial-grounds were to be planted with such as were more cheerful and more fragrant. All the outward signs of the superstition were entirely abolished. It was also decided that there should not be sold in the streets "any kind of jugglery, such as holy napkins, St. Veronica's handkerchiefs, Ecce Homos, crosses, Agnus Deis, virgins, bodies and rings of St. Hubert, or any powders, medicinal waters, or other adulterated drugs." The image of the Virgin was everywhere suppressed, and all the Madonnas in niches at the corners of streets were removed to make room for busts of Marat and Lepelletier. Anacharsis Clootz, a Prussian baron, and deputy to the National Convention, and who announced himself as the Orator of the Human Race, co-operated with Chaumette in incessantly preaching upon the worship of reason. To him deism appeared as culpable as catholicism itself. He never ceased to propose the destruction of tyrants, and of all sorts of gods, declaring that there is no other God but Nature, no other sovereign but the human race, the people-god; and that it was now high time to destroy religion, the only obstacle to the happiness of mankind. The hopes of Clootz were all revived by the requisitions of Chaumette. He called upon Gobel, the constitutional Bishop of Paris. He persuaded him that the moment had arrived for abjuring, in the face of France, the Catholic Name, of which he was the Chief Pontiff. Gobel consented to go and abdicate the episcopacy, and prevailed upon the majority of his vicars to follow his example. Accordingly, on November 7, 1793, all the constituted authorities of Paris accompanied Gobel and all his vicars to the Convention. Chaumette informed it that the Clergy of Paris had come to pay a signal and sincere homage to reason. Gobel was then introduced, with a red cap on his head, and holding in his hand his mitre, his crosier, his cross, and his ring. Addressing the Assembly, he said: "Born a plebian curate of Porentruy, sent by my clergy to the first assembly, then raised to the archbishopric of Paris, I nave never ceased to obey the people. I accepted the functions which that people formerly bestowed on me, and now, in obedience to it, I am come to resign them. I suffered myself to be made a bishop when the people wanted bishops. I cease to be so now when the people no longer desire to have any." He spoke for himself and all his clergy, who ratified his declaration. Having laid down his insignia of office, the president replied that the Convention had decreed freedom of religion; that it had left it unshackled to each sect; that it had never interfered in their creeds, but it applauded those who, enlightened by reason, came to renounce their superstitions and their errors. Several bishops and curates, members of the Convention, abjured catholicism. These abdications were nailed with tumultuous applause by the Assembly and the tribunes. The deputation then retired, and, attended by an immense concourse, proceeded to the Hotel de Ville to receive the congratulations of the Commune. The example once given, it was not difficult to excite all the sections of Paris, and all the communes of the Republic to follow it. The sections all declared that they renounced the errors of superstition, and acknowledged no other worship than that of reason. The section of L'Homme-Arme declared that it acknowledged no other worship than that of truth and reason; no other fanaticism than that of liberty and equality; no other doctrine than that of fraternity and of the republican laws decreed since May 31, 1793. The section of La Reunion intimated that it would make a bonfire of all the confessionals and of all the books used by the catholics; and that it would shut up the church of St. Mary. The section William Tell renounced forever the worship of error and imposture. That of Mutius Scavola abjured the catholic superstition. That of Les Piques that it would adore no other god than the God of liberty and equality. And that of the Arsenal also renounced the catholic religion. "Thus the sections taking the initiation, abjured the Catholic Name as the established superstition, and seized its edifices and treasures, as pertaining to the communal domains. A great number of the departmental communes seized the movable property of the churches, which they said was not necessary for religion. All the churches were stripped, and deputations were sent to the Convention with the gold and silver accumulated in the shrines of saints, or places appropriated to devotion. They went in procession, and the rabble, indulging in their fondness for burlesque, caricatured in the most ludicrous manner the ceremonies of catholicism, which they took as much delight in profaning as they had formerly done in celebrating them. Men wearing surplices and copes, came singing hallelujahs, and dancing the Carmagnole, to the bar of the Convention. There they deposited the host or Wafer-god, the boxes in which it was kept, and the idols of gold and silver. They made burlesque speeches, and sometimes addressed the most singular apostrophes to the saint-daemonials themselves. 'O you,' exclaimed a deputation from St. Denis, 'O, you instruments of fanaticism; blessed saints of all kinds; be at length patriots. Rise in mass. Serve the country by going to the mint to be melted, and give us in this world that felicity which you wanted to obtain for us in the other.' Having thus trampled on the saints of Romanism, they unveiled the busts of Marat and Lepelletier, and pointing to them, said: 'These are not gods made by men, but the images of worthy citizens assassinated by the slaves of kings.' They then filed off before the Convention, again singing hallelujahs and dancing the Carmagnole, carried the rich spoils of the altars to the mint, and placed the busts of the revered Marat and Lepelletier in the churches, which thenceforth became the temples of a new worship." Such was the putting to death among the "seven thousand Names of men," of the beast's "Name of Blasphemy," in all the territory of the Tenth of the Great City (Apoc. 13:1). It was a conflict between reason based upon the "vain philosophy" of Voltaire, and idolatry sustained by the power of the State. The power had first to be destroyed, and then the idolatry fall. Unenlightened reason and vain philosophy were too strong for catholic ghost and relic worship, and therefore it was destroyed. Thus one abomination was played off against another, and the most guilty before God was treated by a base rabble even as contemptible and vile. How admirably the Deity avenges his own. He cast down the bloody throne of the Bourbons; caused the royal representatives of the murderers of his saints and witnesses first to be humbled in the dust and impoverished, then tried for their crimes by "vile plebeians," and insultingly condemned, and finally ignominiously guillotined before the mob; and as the crowning expression of his indignation, exhibited the symbols, superstition and imposture of his enemies to the contempt of an awakened world. These were wonderful events, all consequent upon the ascent of the political witnesses of Jesus "in the cloud;" and an earnest of that grander and universal judgment of the Great City, when the Lord God, Yahweh Elohim, shall arise to exterminate its temporal and spiritual power, and to bless all nations in their deliverance. As I have said, the spiritual bazaars, dedicated to the guardian ghosts of fictitious saints, called "churches," were turned into temples for the worship of Deified Reason! The bazaar, where the archbishops of Paris used to exhibit their spiritual wares, and dedicated to the ghost the Laodiceans style "Our Lady," was converted into a republican edifice called The Temple of Reason. A festival was instituted to be celebrated there every tenth day as a substitute for the catholic mummery of Sundays. To this Temple of Reason the mayor, municipal officers and public functionaries repaired. Here they read the declaration of the rights of man and the constitutional act, analyzed the news from the army, and related the brilliant actions which had been performed during the Decade or past ten days. A mouth of truth was placed in this temple to receive opinions, censures, advice, that might be useful to the public. These letters were examined and read every Decade or tenth day; a discourse on morals was delivered, after which pieces of music were performed, and the ceremonies concluded with the singing of republican hymns. "The first festival of Reason was held with pomp, on Nov. 10, 1793. It was attended by all the sections and constituted authorities. A young woman, the wife of a printer, personated the Goddess of Reason. She was draped in white, and a mantle of azure blue hung from her shoulders, and her flowing hair was covered with the cap of liberty. She sat upon an antique seat, entwined with ivy, and borne by four citizens. Young girls, robed in white and crowned with roses, preceded and followed the deified rival of the catholic Queen of Heaven. Then came the busts of the sanguinary Marat and the regicide Lepelletier (assassinated by a soldier because he had voted the death of Louis XVI.), with musicians, troops, and all the armed sections. Speeches were delivered, and hymns sung, upon which they left the Temple of Reason and presented themselves before the Convention. "Legislators!" said Chaumette. "Fanaticism has given way to reason. Its bleared eyes could not endure the brilliancy of the light. This day an immense concourse has assembled beneath the Gothic vaults, which, for the first time, re-echoed the truth. There the French have celebrated the only true worship -- that of liberty, that of reason. There we have formed wishes for the prosperity of the arms of the republic. There we have abandoned inanimate idols (the images of saints) for reason, for that animated image, the masterpiece of nature," -- pointing to the printer's wife, the new-made goddess of reason. This young and brazen beauty then descended from her seat, and went up to the presiding Jupiter of the Convention, who gave her the fraternal kiss amidst universal bravos and shouts of the Republic forever! Reason forever! Down with fanaticism! This farce being over, the procession, accompanied by the reluctant Convention, returned to the Temple of Reason, sang a patriotic song, and dismissed. 15. "The Rest Were Terrified" The rest, styled in the text hoi loipoi, the others not of the titled and privileged orders, became terrified. These terrified people composed that inert and patient part of the population of France, on which political experiments were being made. They were the swinish multitude of catholicism, which still clung to the worship of demonials and the works of men's hands. The refractory priests were the living deities of these terrified heirs of capture and destruction. In this great judgment the Deity of Heaven first smote "the world rulers of the darkness, and their spirituals of the wickedness in the heavenlies;" He was now about to descend in terrorism upon the guilty devotees of blasphemy, who in a past generation had lent a willing hand in slaying His witnesses, and suppressing their enlightening testimony. The wicked are Deity's sword for vengeance upon blasphemers of His word and Name, until the time come to give the execution of judgment into the hands of the saints. We need not, therefore, be surprised at finding among his political witnesses and avengers such men as Marat, Danton, Robespierre, St. Juste, surnamed "the Apocalyptic," and such like. If He did not employ "the basest of men" to execute terrifying vengeance upon guilty nations, how would such have been punished during the past eighteen centuries? If nations will "blaspheme His name, and His tabernacle, and them that dwell in the heaven;" if they will persist in upholding spiritual impostures, and in making His word of none effect by their absurd and impious traditions, they must be punished as nations; and, as real, scriptural, saints are so scarce, the vengeance of Samuel upon Agag must be in the meantime executed by wicked men as the blind instruments of His will. A terrified people implies the existence of terrifiers; and that these terrorists were stronger than the terrified. The history of the period is in rigid harmony with this implication. The retributive and righteous providence of Deity, by successive shocks of the great earthquake, had brought the besotted worshippers of the daemonials and idols under what has been styled by eminence "The Reign of Terror." This power was more terrific than any that has oppressed society since the flood. The twenty-five millions of affrighted catholic French "dared no longer express any opinion. They were afraid to visit their friends lest they might be compromised with them, and lose liberty and even life. A hundred thousand arrests, and hundreds of condemnations, rendered imprisonment and the scaffold ever present to their minds. They had to bear heavy taxes. Sometimes they had to give up their crops, or their most valuable effects in gold and silver. They durst no longer display any luxury, or indulge in noisy pleasures. They were no longer permitted to use metallic money, but obliged to take and give a depreciated paper, with which it was difficult to procure such things as they needed. They were forced, if storekeepers, to sell at a fictitious price; if buyers, to put up with the worst commodities. They had but one sort of black bread, common to the rich as to the poor, for which they were obliged to contend at the doors of the bakers, after waiting for several hours. Never had power overthrown with greater violence the habits of a people. It threatened all lives, decimated all fortunes, fixed compulsorily the standard of the exchanges, gave new names to all things, and abolished with insult the superstition of the 'terrified'." This terrible power that blindly avenged the saints, found vent through the Jacobins of the Mountain. Of these, the most terrible was Marat. He was born of Calvinist parents, with a hideous face, and head monstrously disproportioned to his size. He had a daring mind, an ungovernable imagination, a vindictive temper, and the heart of a tiger. In the period of the earthquake, his natural enthusiasm rose to delirium, in which he preached upon revolt, murder, and pillage. In one of his speeches he said, "Massacre 270,000 partisans of the former order of things." "His political exhortations," says Sir Walter Scott, "began and ended like the howl of a blood-hound for murder. It was blood which was Marat's constant demand; not in drops from the breast of an individual, not in puny streams from the slaughter of families; but blood in the profusion of an ocean." "None exercised a more fatal influence upon the period in which he lived. To him was owing the idea realized at a later period -- the extermination of multitudes. He regarded the French as paltry revolutionists. 'Give me,' said he, 'two hundred Neapolitans, the knife in their right hand, in their left a muff, to serve for a shield, and with these I will traverse France, and complete the Revolution.' It was necessary, he asserted, to strike off several thousand heads, and to destroy all the aristocrats, who rendered liberty impossible. Under this name he included royalists, constitutionalists, and Girondins; and that none might escape, it was only necessary to fall upon those who had carriages, servants, silk clothes, and who were coming out of the theatres. All such were assuredly aristocrats. This pitiless avenger was supported by Danton, Robespierre, and others like them; sat in the National Convention as a member of the Mountain, presided over the Society of Jacobins, and was ultimately deified in this carnival of blood. "Marat was abhorred by his colleagues; but they did not abhor making use of him. They placed him in their midst, they put him in their van, they bore him as it were upon their breasts, like a head of Medusa. As the horror of such a man was everywhere, you fancied that you perceived him everywhere; you almost imagined," said Garat, "that he was the whole Mountain, or that the whole Mountain was, as it were, he. Among the leaders, in fact, there were several who found no other fault of the misdeeds of Marat, but that they were too undisguised." From this class of agents issued the sanguinary terror by which "the rest were affrighted." After it had prostrated the Tenth Throne of the Great City, it filled the prisons with crowds of suspected sympathizers with royalty and the recent order of things. These arrests were made by the police under the direction of Marat, "whose name alone," says Petion, "strikes terror into the souls of all peaceable citizens." A rumor was started that there was a plot to liberate all the prisoners, who were then to spread themselves through Paris, to commit all sorts of excesses, and to carry off the king. Apprehensive of this, the secret directory caused the alarm gun to be fired, and the tocsin to be sounded. The mob collected, broke into the prisons, and, on September 2, 1792, began a work of carnage which continued for several days. Twenty-four priests were sent to the Abbaye for refusing to take the oath to the constitution. On descending from the coaches to enter the prison, they were immediately pierced by a thousand weapons, amidst the howls of an infuriated populace. Led by Maillard, they rushed to the church of the Carmelites, where they butchered two hundred priests of the Catholic Baal who had been confined there. Being refreshed with wine, they returned to the Abbaye. There they organized a criminal tribunal, of which Maillard was the terrible president. A list of the prisoners was placed before him. They were brought out in order and questioned. When he pronounced the words, "Sir, to La Force!" he was passed out at the gate, supposing that he was being transferred to that prison. But, when the door closed upon him, he was suddenly hewn to pieces by the swords of the party posted there. "Terror," was proclaimed to be "the order of the day," and a secret authority overawed that which was public. The massacre continued through the night. Amidst this carnage, however, they spared some victims, and manifested inconceivable joy in giving them their lives. A young man, declared pure from aristocracy, was acquitted with shouts of "Vive la nation!" and borne in triumph in the bloody arms of the executioners. The Governor of the Invalides was sentenced to La Force. Perceiving him from the prison, his daughter rushed out amongst pikes and swords, and, with piteous supplications, besought them to spare him. Handing her a pot of human blood, "Drink, then," said they, "the blood of the aristocrats!" She drank -- and her father was saved. "After thirty hours of carnage," says Peltier, "sentence was passed on Cazotte. The instrument of death was already uplifted; and bloody hands were stretched out to pierce his aged breast. His daughter, seizing him round the neck, exclaimed, 'You shall not get at my father till you have forced your way through my heart.' The pikes were instantly checked, and a shout of pardon was raised by a thousand voices. Elizabeth embraced the murderers; and, covered with human blood, but triumphant, proceeded to lodge her father safe in the midst of his family." Another of the few capriciously saved was escorted home with great attention by these Avengers. Dripping with blood, they begged leave to witness the joy of his family, and immediately after returned to the carnage. "In this convulsive state," says M. Thiers, "all the emotions succeeded each other in the heart of man. By turns, a miland ferocious animal, he weeps and then slaughters. Steeped in blood, he is all at once touched by an instance of ardent affection or of noble firmness. He is sensible to the honor of appearing just, to the vanity of appearing upright or disinterested." During this terrific night, the avengers had divided and carried destruction into the other prisons of Paris. Like massacres were perpetrated, and blood flowed in streams. Consternation pervaded all Paris. The slaughter of the four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal by the command of Elijah was nothing in comparison. The members of the Commune declared that the people had been just; that they had punished criminals only; and that, in their vengeance, if they had done wrong, it was merely by anticipating the sword of the law. The only place preserved from attack was the Temple, against the royal inmates of which the popular fury was particularly excited; so that, for six hours, it was very doubtful whether they would be massacred or not. The Bicetre Hospital was the scene of the longest and bloodiest carnage. This prison was the receptacle of every vice; it was an hospital, also, for the foulest and most afflicting diseases. It was the sink of Paris. The avengers of crime put every creature there to death. Not less than 6000 were slain during the eight days and nights of the slaughter. Pikes, swords, and muskets not being expeditious enough, recourse was had to cannon. A long and deadly resistance was made by the victims, but they were all eventually slain. During the three days of slaughter, about eight thousand prisoners were mercilessly put to death. The prisons having been thus cleared by fire and sword, the terrorists began to fill them again by new arrests founded upon suspicions of incivism. While operating in Paris, terrorist commissioners were despatched to the departments to exhort them to imitate the sanguinary example of the Capital. Collot d'Herbois, surnamed the Tiger, was almost equal to Marat. When he departed for Lyons, he protested that the South should be soon purified. He employed a column of the revolutionary army, with cannon, to make up for the slowness of the guillotine. Freron displayed extreme activity and zeal in the work of death. He proclaimed the purpose of rasing Toulon to the ground. Writing to Bayle, he says: "Things go on well here; every day since our arrival we have caused two hundred heads to fall, and already eight hundred Toulonese have been shot". Eight thousand Toulonese assembled in the Champs de Mars. The commissioners were shocked at the sight of this multitude of victims. Freron himself was terrified. A great number of the most guilty were instantly shot. The musketry shooting being insufficient, they afterwards had recourse to cannon. In another execution of this nature, in order to despatch the victims who had not perished by the first discharge, Freron cried out, "Let those who are still living rise; the republic pardons them." Some arose, when he caused them to be immediately fired upon. On quitting Toulon, he went to finish the depopulation of Marseilles. Here they destroyed more than four hundred persons by a criminal tribunal; and caused some of its finest buildings to be demolished. "Wearied with the slow operation of the guillotine," says Alison, "they destroyed their prisoners in masses by firing at them with grapeshot." In La Vendee, the noyades became celebrated: men and women, in vessels full or in couples, being there drowned by the victorious avengers, and the noyades called Republican Baptism and Republican Marriage. At Pillau, they roasted women and children in a heated oven. In these horrors, one regiment assumed to itself the title of Infernal. Altogether, the massacres during the Reign of Terror are reckoned at 1,022,351. Thus were avenged the 75,000 slain in France, a.d. 1572; the unnumbered thousands slain in the anti-witness war; the 100,000 destroyed at their political death; and the 800,000, or 1,000,000 ruined exiles of 1685. The kings of France are computed to have put to death in torments a million of the witnesses for Jesus under the Satanic inspiration of the Romish priests. Can we, then, in reading the horrors perpetrated in the Reign of Terror, and which principally fell upon the clergy and their adherents, forbear to exclaim, "Righteous art thou, O Lord, who art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus: for they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy. True and righteous are thy judgments!" (Apoc. 16:5). The Terrorists were the sword and scourge of Deity upon the guilty. They were raised up by Him to retaliate upon the king, court, nobility, priests, and people, the murders and crimes of every sort, which had accumulated upon their heads until his longsuffering was exhausted. The nation was paralyzed, as well as astounded and affrighted. It was the Terrorists that condemned the king and queen to lose their heads, by which they broke definitively with royalty and all thrones; and afterwards destroyed the Girondins for their want of zeal in the regeneration of France by the guillotine. This was the overthrow of all legality, and the establishment of the Terrible Dictatorship, developed in the Committee of Public Welfare. From May 31, 1793, commence scenes a hundred times more awful and more terrible than the massacres of the prisons of Paris. La Vendee, the stronghold of the priests, was all fire and blood. Their forces were styled, "the royal and catholic armies." The partisans of absolute power were simultaneously lifting up their heads for a grand rally against the Revolution. The conflict that ensued resulted in the establishment of the Committee of Public Welfare, which was absolute master of the situation, being empowered to send the people either to the field of battle, to the scaffold, or to prison; and, for the defence of the Revolution, was possessed of a sovereign and terrible dictatorship. The judgment-seat of this fearful committee was the Revolutionary Tribunal, whose institution was caused by Danton. Its familiars pervaded the land, and all the great cities of France experienced its vengeance. "The Mountains" was now in the ascendant -- it ruled with terror in the heaven into which it had ascended when called up thither by the "great voice," or edict of the king. The ruling power in the Mountain was Robespierre and the Jacobins. The Committee and Tribunal were directed by them; and however great their vengeance upon nobles, priests, the rich, and their adherents, greater vengeance was soon to be displayed in Pads. It is a remarkable fact, that the cities and districts where the blood of the saints and witnessing prophets of Jesus had been poured out most abundantly and with the greatest barbarity, suffered the most horribly in the Reign of Terror. After the decapitation of Marie Antoinette and the Girondins, the sword of execution had no rest. All that was considered most noble and most generous was perishing either by suicide or by the blade of the executioner. "The whole country seemed one vast conflagration of revolt and vengeance. The shrieks of death were blended with the yell of the assassin and the laughter of buffoons." In conclusion, under this head, I remark, in the words of Alison, that, after April, 1794, "one only power now remained -- alone, terrible, irresistible. This was the power of Death, wielded by a faction (of which Robespierre was chief), steeled against every feeling of humanity, dead to every principle of justice. In their iron hands order resumed its sway from the influence of terror; obedience became universal from the extinction of hope. Silent and unresisted, they led their victims to the scaffold, dreaded alike by the soldiers who crouched, the people who trembled, and the victims who suffered. The history of the world has no parallel to the horrors of that long night of suffering!" 16. "And they gave Glory to the Deity of the Heaven"

This was the last demonstration of "the Earth" in its extraordinary agitations. In the prophecy four things are particularly noted as characteristic of the Great Earthquake which consummated the Sixth Trumpet, or Second Woe, namely:

  1. The Fall of the Tenth of the City;
  2. The putting to death of Seven Thousand Names of Men;
  3. The affrighting of the Rest; and
  4. The Ascription of Glory to the Deity of the Heaven.

These four characteristics have met in no other revolution of past ages than in that of the French Epoch from a.d. 1789 to a.d. 1794. It was the earnest of what is yet to come on a grander scale when the whole of the spiritual Sodom and Egypt, that is of the Great Papal City with all its kingdoms, or Tenths, and all its clerical and aristocratic orders, Romish, Protestant, and Greek, shall be destroyed; not by "the Earth," however, but by the Cloud-Invested Angel of the Bow. There will be this difference in the executing of the judgment by the saints. Their judgment will be more sanguinary and terrific; but in executing it, they will be guiltless of personal crimes. They will execute judgment in righteousness This was not the judgment excecuted by Marat, Fouquier, Tinville, Collot d'Herbois, Robespierre, and the like. These were bloodthirsty villains, who, in blindly punishing the blasphemous worshippers of saint-ghosts, relics, and images, aristocratic, clerical, and plebeian, accumulated upon their own heads heaps of trespasses, that could only be cancelled by the blood of the transgressors. They were thieves, adulterers, whoremongers, murderers, hypocrites, and atheists. These were the characters that flourished in the work of French regeneration as they styled it and were always babbling about virtue, integrity, fraternity, justice, and so forth; to all of which, in a scriptural sense, they were utter strangers. Nevertheless, they were not worse than the creatures they put to death. They were the mire and dirt of society which is itself infected and foul; and when stirred up from its lowest depths, throws upon its surface its putrefactions. In the reign of death, these were swept into the common sewer of headless humanity. The guillotine, which they termed "holy," was just and impartial in its vengeance; so that those who worked at it with revolutionary fury, were themselves at length compelled to pay justice with their lives. As we have seen, in the total abolition of the names of men, the Catholic Name was abolished also. The destruction of this name in France was, in effect, to the glory of God; although its ruin was by the agency of a set of dissolute, fanatical, atheists. But these creatures marred the good work by decreeing likewise, that there was no Supreme Being, who was before all things, who made all things, and by whose power all things are sustained. "The fool has said in his heart, There is no God." The denial of Deity, and the deification of Reason, was, therefore, the work of fools. The prime movers of this blasphemy, however, were soon afterwards sent to the guillotine, which silenced their folly for ever. The proclamation of the Parisian authorities denying the existence of Deity was exceedingly offensive to the deists of the Committee of Public Welfare and the Convention. The former had paid homage to moral ideas by making "integrity, justice, and all the virtues, the order of the day;" it could not, therefore, tolerate the atheistic deification of reason, which made such order impossible. "They beheld anarchy," says M. Thiers, "rejecting all belief in God, effeminacy and corruption rejecting all idea of order, mental delirium rejecting all idea of morals. They then conceived the republic as virtue assailed by all the bad passions at once. The word virtue was everywhere: they placed justice and integrity upon the order of the day. It yet remained for them to proclaim the belief in God, the Immortality of the Soul, all the moral creeds; it yet remained for them to make a solemn declaration, to declare, in short, the Religion of the State. They resolved, therefore, to pass a decree upon the subject. In this manner they should oppose order to the anarchists, faith in God to the Atheists, and morals to the dissolute. Their system of virtue would be complete. The deistical committee made it above all a particular point to remove from the republic the stigma of impiety with which it was branded throughout all Europe. They resolved to say what is always said to priests who accuse you of impiety because you do not believe in their dogmas -- We believe in God." The deistical dictators "had other motives for adopting a grand measure in regard to religion. The ceremonies of the new worship of reason had been abolished; festivals were required for the Decades or Tenth Days; and it was deemed of importance, when attending to the moral and religious wants of the people, to think of their wants of the imagination, and to furnish them with subjects of public meetings. Besides, the favorable condition of public affairs caused them to deem the moment most favorable for prostrating the republic at the feet of the Almighty. The occasion was grand and touching for those who believed. It was seasonable for those who merely complied with political ideas." "Let us remark," continues M. Thiers, "one singular circumstance. Sectaries, for whom there existed no human convention that was respectable (so he designates the political witnesses of Jesus; and truly affirms, that for the witnesses of both classes, there doth exist no human convention that is respectable) who, from the extraordinary contempt in which they held all other nations and the esteem with which they were filled for themselves, dreaded no opinion, and were not afraid of wounding that of all the world; who, in matters of government had reduced everything to just what was absolutely necessary; who had admitted no other authority but that of a few citizens temporarily elected; who had not hesitated to abolish the most ancient and most stubborn of all religions -- the Romish; such sectaries paused before two ideas, morality and faith in God. After rejecting all those ideas from which they deemed it possible to release man, they remained under the sway of the two last, and sacrificed a party to each idea. If some of them did not believe, they nevertheless all felt a want of order among men, and for the support of this human order, the necessity of acknowledging in the universe a general and intelligent order. This is the first time in the history of the world that the dissolution of all the authorities left society a prey to the government of purely systematic minds, and those minds which had outstripped all the received ideas adopted, retained the ideas of morality and faith in God. This example is unparalleled in the history of the world: it is singular, it is grand, it is beautiful: history cannot help pausing to remark it." M. Thiers did not know that he was pausing to remark upon an event that had been predicted eighteen centuries before by the Exile of Patmos -- by that beloved companion of Jesus, who had distinctly spoken of these so-called "sectaries;" and expressly declared that they should do that "singular, grand, and beautiful" thing, of pausing before the idea of faith in God, in "giving glory to the God of the heaven" in the throes of a grand convulsion, that should abolish monarchy, the names of men, and "the most stubborn of all religions." It was an event which no historian of repute could venture to ignore. Robespierre was reporter on this interesting occasion. He was the head of the Committee of Public Welfare, was consulted on all matters, and spoke only on important occasions. "For him," says M. Thiers, "were reserved the high moral and political questions, as more worthy of his talents and his virtue. The duty of reporter on the question belonged to him of right. None had spoken out more decidedly against atheism, none was so venerated, none had so high a reputation for purity and virtue, none, in short, was so well qualified by his ascendancy and his dogmatism for this sort of pontificate. ROBESPIERRE (1758-94). The famous revolutionary leader known as "The Incorruptible" is identified with "The Reign of Terror". He was an extreme fanatic, and mainly responsible for the execution of the King. After Mirabeau's death his power and influence increased, and he was elected a member of the Committee of Public Safety in 1793. As a leader of the extreme Jacobin party, he bitterly opposed the Girdonists (the more moderate group), and was responsible for the execution of its leaders after a mere mockery of a trial. Robespierre aimed at a dictatorship of Republican France, but in spite of his status, was unable to control the terror he had unleashed. His tyrannical attitude antagonised members of his own party who rose against him. He was arrested, and after a brief trial, was condemned to death. He was guillotined with others on July 28, 1794. "On May 7, 1794, about ten weeks before he lost his head, he addressed the National Convention upon the subject of 'giving glory to the God of the heaven.' He was listened to with profound attention. He justly observed, that it was not as the authors of systems that the representatives of the nation ought to discourage atheism and to proclaim deism, but as legislators seeking what principles are most suitable to man in a state of society. In the eyes of the legislator, all that is beneficial to the world and good in practice, is truth. The idea of the Supreme Being and of the immortality of the soul is a continual recall of justice; it is therefore social and republican." In his address he strove to counteract the idea that, in proclaiming the worship of the Supreme Being, the government was laboring for the benefit of the priests. "What is there in common," said he, "between the priests and God? The priests are to morality what quacks are to medicine. How different is the God of Nature from the God of the priests! I know nothing that so nearly resembles atheism as the religions which they have framed. By grossly misrepresenting the Supreme Being, they have annihilated belief in him as far as lay in their power. The priests have created a God after their own image: they have made him jealous, capricious, greedy, cruel, and implacable: they have confined him in heaven as in a palace, and have called him to earth only to demand of him, for their own interest, tithes, wealth, honors, pleasures, and power. The real temple of the Supreme Being is the universe; his worship, virtue; his festivals, the joy of a great nation, assembled in his presence to knit closer the bonds of universal fraternity, and to pay him the homage of intelligent and pure hearts." He finished his report amidst the warmest applause, and proposed the following decree, which was adopted by acclamation: "Art. 1. The French people acknowledges the existence of the Supreme Being and the Immortality of the Soul. "Art. 2. It acknowledges that the worship most worthy of the Supreme Being is the practice of the duties of man." A solemn festival was ordered for June 8. The decree was read at a meeting of the Jacobins, who caused an address to be drawn up, and presented to the Convention by a deputation of their body. Their address concluded thus: "The Jacobins come this day to thank you for the solemn decree that you have just issued; they will come and join you in the celebration of that great day on which the festival of the Supreme Being shall assemble the virtuous citizens throughout all France to sing the hymn of virtue." To this the president replied: "It is worthy of a society which fills the world with its renown, which enjoys so great an influence upon public opinion, which has associated at all times with all the most courageous of the defenders of the rights of man, to come to the temple of the laws to pay homage to the Supreme Being." A member of the Committee, named Couthon, then made a violent speech against atheists and corrupt men; and concluded by proposing on that solemn day of joy and gratitude to declare that ever since the commencement of the Revolution, the Jacobins had not ceased to deserve well of the country. This suggestion was adopted amidst thunders of applause. The Convention broke up in transports of joy, nay, indeed, in a sort of intoxication. Congratulatory addresses to the Convention for proclaiming belief in the Supreme Being were very numerous. "The contagion of ideas and words," says M. Thiers, "spread with extraordinary rapidity among the French. Among a prompt and communicative people the idea that engages some few minds soon engages the attention of the public generally; the word that is in some mouths is soon in all. Addresses poured in from all parts, congratulating the Convention on its sublime decree, thanking it for having established virtue, proclaiming the worship of the Supreme Being, and restored hope to man. The section of Marat of Paris, appearing at the bar, addressed the assembly, saying: 'O beneficent Mountain! protecting Science! accept also our expressions of gratitude and congratulation for all the sublime decrees which thou art daily issuing for the happiness of mankind. From thy boiling bosom darted the salutary thunderbolt, which, in crushing atheism, gives us genuine republicans the consolatory idea of living free, in the sight of the Supreme Being, and in expectation of the immortality of the soul.' "From that day, the words virtue and Supreme Being were in every mouth. Instead of the inscription, To Reason, placed on the fronts of the temples, there was now inscribed, To the Supreme Being." The day fixed for the festival in honor of the Supreme Being at length arrived. The principal part in the performance was unanimously assigned to Robespierre, whom his colleagues strove to flatter and to soothe by dint of honors. Vast preparations had been made, and the festival was to be magnificent. The multitude had collected, and after a considerable time, Robespierre appeared in the midst of the Convention. He was dressed with extraordinary care. His head was covered with feathers, and in his hand he held, like all the representatives, a bunch of flowers, fruit, and ears of corn. In his countenance, usually so gloomy, beamed a cheerfulness that was uncommon to him. An amphitheatre was erected in the centre of the garden of the Tuileries. This was occupied by the Convention; and on either side were several groups of boys, men, aged persons, and females. The boys wore wreaths of violets, the youths of myrtle, the men of oak, the aged people of ivy and olive. The men held their daughters by the hand, and carried baskets of flowers. Opposite to the amphitheatre were figures representing Atheism, Discord, Selfishness. These were destined to be burned. As soon as the Convention had taken its place, the ceremony was opened with music. The president then delivered a first discourse on the object of the Festival. "Republican Frenchmen!" said he, "the ever fortunate day which the French people dedicated to the Supreme Being is at length arrived. Never did the world which He created, exhibit a spectacle so worthy of His attention. He has beheld tyranny, crime, and imposture reigning on earth. He beholds at this moment a whole nation assailed by all the oppressors of mankind, suspending the course of its heroic labors, to lift its thoughts and its prayers towards the Supreme Being, who gave it the mission to undertake and the courage to execute them." After proceeding in this manner for a few minutes, he descended from the amphitheatre, and seizing a torch, set fire to the figures of Atheism, Discord and Selfishness. From amidst their ashes rose the statue of Wisdom, blackened by the flames from which it issued. Robespierre returned to his place, and delivered a second speech on the extirpation of the vices leagued against the Republic. After this first ceremony, the Assembly set out in procession for the Field of Mars. The pride of Robespierre seemed redoubled, and he affected to walk very far before his colleagues. But some indignantly approached, and lavished upon him the keenest sarcasms. Some laughed at the new pontiff, and said, in relation to his smoky statue of Wisdom, that his wisdom was darkened. Others uttered the word "tyrant," and exclaimed that there were still Brutuses. A deputy addressed to him the prophetic words: "The Tarpeian rock is close to the Capitol." The procession at length reached the Champs de Mars. There arose a lofty mount, on the summit of which was a tree, beneath whose boughs the Convention seated itself. On each side of the mount the different groups of boys, old men, and women, took their places. A symphony commenced; the groups then sang stanzas, alternately answering one another; at length, on a given signal, the youths drew their swords, and swore to the elders to defend their country; the mothers lifted their infants in their arms; all present raised their hands towards heaven, and the oath to conquer was mingled with the homage paid to the Supreme Being. They then returned to the garden of the Tuileries, and the Festival concluded with public diversions. Such was the famous festival in which "they gave glory to the Deity of the Heaven" -- a glory or homage based on the abolition of the Catholic worship of the Roman God, "the deity of the earth," before whom they had stood witnessing in sackcloth over twelve centuries. The "they" who gave the glory were the constituted authorities in the republican heaven, and who had been unwittingly invited up thither by the royal edict, and had ascended to their sovereign position "in the cloud." They were as impious, sanguinary and cruel as "Yahweh's Anointed Shepherd," Cyrus, and "his sanctified ones," the Medes and Persians, who ravished wives, spoiled houses, had no pity on the fruit of the womb, dashed children to pieces, and destroyed adults without mercy. This was the spirit that inspired Robespierre and his colleagues of the Convention and its committees, who all figured in this festival. On the days preceding and following that on which they were giving glory to the Supreme power of the heaven, they sent forty-three victims to the guillotine. Some of his colleagues did not like the festival. They said it had alienated many minds, and that those ideas of the Supreme Being, of the Immortality of the Soul, and those pompous ceremonies, looked like a return to the superstition of former times, and were likely to give a retrograde impulse to the Revolution. Robespierre was irritated by these remarks, and insisted that he never meant to make the revolution retrograde, but had done everything to accelerate its course; in proof of which he had drafted a law to make the Revolutionary tribunal still more sanguinary. The law was passed, and in the forty-nine days succeeding the festival 1386 victims lost their heads on no other ground than suspicion. We are not, therefore, to suppose that the glory given commmended the actors in the festival to Deity. John merely predicted it as an event that would obtain in the great earthquake, and as a sign by which that revolutionary crisis might be known to be the epoch of the ascent of the Terrible Witnesses against the Romish Idolatry to power. The Third Woe "The Second Woe has passed away; behold, the Third Woe comes immediately." The fifth trumpet, which summoned the Saracens against the Greek division of the Catholic Apostasy, was the first woe, and the sixth trumpet, which sounded forth the four angel-powers to put to death the Greek Catholic dominion, was the second woe. This was not only to extinguish this dominion, but to torment with a terrible testimony the world rulers and spirituals of the European Commonwealth in church and state, symbolized in the prophecy by "the beast with seven heads and ten horns." Hence, the judgments of the Second Woe were widely diffused over the whole of the Great City from the Euphrates to the Danube, the Rhine, and the ocean. They began their desolating career a.d. 1062, and continued in their work of death upon the worshippers of the Demonials and Catholic Idols, until the demonial worship was destroyed in France, and its national homage transferred from the Roman "God of the earth" to "the Deity of the heaven," a.d. 1794, a calamitous period of 732 years. The ascription of glory to the Supreme Being was the remarkable act by which the second woe was consummated. But, notwithstanding all the judgments that had fallen upon the Catholic World, it continued unrepentant of its idolatry, of its murders, its sorceries, its fornication, and its thefts. They had been terribly chastised in France. The blood they had shed there was avenged twofold; their spiritual sorceries had been abolished; the priests had been compelled to marry; and the wealth they had acquired by theft and fraud, they had been forced to disgorge. About two thousand priests had died by the executioner, many abjured their religion; and thousands had been expelled from the bloodstained country they had plundered and ruined. Still the Catholic world clung to its delusions, and repented not of its deeds. The Second Woe had exhausted itself upon "the Tenth of the City." The Reign of Terror ended with the execution of Robespierre and his colaborers. Forty-nine days after the Festival their heads rolled into the basket of the guillotine. Applause accompanied every descent of the fatal blade; and joy prevailed on every side, and the system of terror was overthrown. The woe had "passed away," and the time had come for republicanized France to become an angel-power of destruction against the worshippers of the beast in the other Tenths of the Great City. "The third woe comes immediately" after the termination of the second. Between the predicted events of the first and second woes, that is, from the end of the first to the beginning of the second woe, there was an interval of about 130 years. But between the end of the second and the beginning of the third, there was no appreciable interval. It may therefore be considered as beginning in the year of the Festival, a.d. 1794. This third woe is, of course, the Seventh and Last Trumpet -- the Seventh Trumpet Division of the Seventh Seal, and summarized in the following words: "And the seventh angel sounded, and there were great voices in the heaven, saying, The kingdoms of the world have become our Lord's and his Christ's, and he shall reign for the aions of the aions." This is the grand result of the sounding -- a consummation to be perfected as the result of the sounding of the seventh trumpet. This third woe trumpet has been sounding during the past seventy one years. These are so many of "the days of the voice of the seventh angel" as have hitherto elapsed. But they are not all "the days of the voice." They have brought us to the terminal epoch of the Holy City's "forty and two months" and I believe that there are yet forty more "days," or years, to fill up all "the days of the voice of the seventh angel." The fall of the Tenth of the city happened in a day, but it did not become the Lord's. All the tenths are to fall likewise by violence, to which they will be forced to yield, and to become the property of Him who overturns them. This overthrow will be the work of the "Hour of Judgment," which does not begin till after the advent of Christ, and the giving of judgment to the Saints; and consequently, after their resurrection and ascension to power in the heaven, as prefigured in the resurrection and ascension of the political witnesses "in the cloud." The judgments of the second woe terminated in the Reign of Terror, the most awful and terrible epoch ever yet experienced by a nation. It was emphatically the Reign of Death, oftentimes in its most appalling forms. But the consummation of the seventh trumpet will woefully surpass the Reign of Terror. This was limited to a single nation, of which the mighty were hurled from their seats into the lowest depths, and the rest sent empty away. But the terminal epoch of the seventh trumpet now upon us, will make the ears to tingle only to hear the report of its terrors. Daniel was informed that it would be "a time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation to that same time" (ch. 12:1). "The time of the end" of the third woe trumpet is a time of unsurpassed calamity, and will extend to all nations in all parts of the earth. Their trade and commerce will be ruinously perturbed; their countries devastated by war; their hundreds of thousands prostrated by famine, pestilence and sword; their armies scattered like chaff before the wind; their "religions" abolished as "abominations" and blasphemies; their priests, clergies and ministers punished as sorcerers, murderers, impostors, hypocrites, and plunderers of the poor; and their kings, nobles and gentry destroyed as "the destroyers of the earth." The Spirit of the Eternal in Jesus and his Brethren is "the Lord and his Christ," by whom this world-wide revolution will be developed and directed. The political witnesses of Jesus developed and directed the great French Revolution. Theirs was a great and mighty, as well as a terrible work; but it is the witnesses of the Holy City, the One Body, who will constitute the Revolutionary Government, and to whom the higher and nobler, mightier and more terrible mission is assigned, of breaking in pieces the political fabric of the world; of emancipating the nations from the reign of ignorance and strong delusion, and of blessing them in Abraham and his Seed. This is the work that is before them, and which, when accomplished, will introduce them to the reign of the aions of the aions, or the Thousand Years. And when this Millennial Sabbatism shall be duly established by the Eternal Spirit, the One Body, in glorious manifestation, and symbolized by the Four and Twenty Elders before the Deity, and "on their thrones," "fall upon their faces and do homage to the Deity, saying, We give thanks to thee, O Lord, the Almighty Deity, who is, and who was, and who art the Coming One, because thou hast assumed thy great power, and reignest." But this is all in the future. It is the grand apocalyptic consummation of the gospel of the kingdom. It is the Divine purpose of the seventh trumpet first stated, but the last accomplished. The Spirit's Body cannot be the Who is, and the Who was, and the Coming One reigning, so long as the saints are sleeping in the dust, and those who corrupt the earth are undestroyed. The resurrection of the holy generation is therefore indispensable to the denouement of the plot. The resurrection first comes in a time of trouble -- a trouble which has doubtless begun, and which will not diminish, but increase, until there be great wrath among the nations. And so it is written in the eighteenth verse of this chapter, saying: "And the nations were made angry, and thy wrath came; and the time of the dead to be judged; and to give the reward to thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, even to those who fear thy name, to the small and to the great; and to destroy those who corrupt the earth." The nations of this prophecy are those of "the earth and of the whole habitable" (Apoc. 16:14). They are "made angry" through the operation of the Frog Power, which is the Imperial Democratic Power of France, the policy of which acting upon the governments of Constantinople, Vienna and Rome, causes these powers in their political antagonisms to become threatening and warlike. Thus the nations they govern are "made angry," and the world is again the theatre of war. While they are in this international belligerency, developing their wrath upon each other, the wrath of Deity is manifested -- "and thy wrath came." But before this wrath can be manifested, He that is to execute the vengeance must have first come; and those who shall have the honor of co-operating with him in judgment, must be raised from among the dead, and have been themselves examined before his tribunal, accepted and quickened with incorruptible life. When the Divine wrath comes upon these nations, the revolutionary executors and directors of the indignation will be the Lord Jesus and his Brethren -- the Saints. The work preparing for them by the Imperial Democratic Power, which is the political witnessing power of "The Mountain" imperialized, will be assumed and consummated by the Saints, who are "the Kings from a Sun's risings." The Mountain, whose representatives are the members of the Napoleon Dynasty, could not with all the power at its command, do the work of wrath assigned to these kings. The nations have felt the power and wrath of "the Terrible Mountain," when, under the generalship of the first Buonaparte, it inflicted "a noisome and grievous sore upon the men who had the mark of the beast, and worshipped the Papal Image," when it "gave them blood to drink" in the plains and valleys of Italy; "scorched with fire" the unrepentant blasphemers of Southern Germany; hurled the Roman God from his throne into captivity; filled his kingdom with darkness; caused his blaspheming priests and worshippers to "gnaw their tongues for pain." In short, the Imperialized Mountain had executed the wrath of the first, third, fourth and fifth vials of the Revolutionary Hour; and having regained its position in the heaven, from which it was expelled at the fall of Napoleon, &c., into which it originally "ascended in the cloud," it is blindly preparing a situation for the manifestation of the almighty and terrible power of the witnesses of the Holy City. The Mountain, though terrible and powerful, is not almighty; but the Holy City, when the forty-two months of its subjection shall have fully passed, shall be more terrible, and absolutely omnipotent in the execution of its mission. What "the Mountain" could not do, "the Stone" will fully accomplish, when it will "become a Great Mountain, and fill the whole earth." "Thy wrath is come." The coming of this wrath is marked by the commencement of the Seventh Vial, which is poured out upon "The Air" -- the political aerial in which the kingdoms of the kosmos, or fourth-beast constitution of thing's, shine in all their glory. The wrath falls upon the Governments to their destruction. The Imperial Mountain overturned the Papal Throne; but after the fall of its Emperor, it was reestablished, as were also other thrones. But the Mountain having recovered its position, has the papal throne again in its powerful grasp. It will not be able finally to abolish it. This is not its mission. It is only the Holy City, the One Almighty Body, that can overthrow all thrones in its wrath, and prevent them from being again established. The One Almighty Body by Seventh-Vial wrath is to possess itself of the kingdoms of the Unmeasured Court of the Gentiles. The corruptors of the earth will then have been destroyed, and the coming wrath of the Deity exhausted. 1. "The Time of the Dead" "The time of the Dead" is at "the Time of the End" -- at the expiration of Daniel's 1335 days. This appears from the words, "Blessed he that waiteth, and cometh to the 1335 days. But go thou till the end; and thou shalt rest, and arise to thine inheritance at the end of the days" (ch. 12:12, 13). To wait and come to these days, is to wait during their course, and to come to their end. Daniel has been thus waiting, but has not yet come to their end. During the time he has been waiting he has been resting, or "sleeping in the dust of the earth" -- verse 2. So long as he is there he knows nothing, and can inherit nothing; for "the dead know not anything", and can therefore be neither happy nor miserable. He expected nothing until he should "awake for a living one of the Olahm." He was told that this should be at the end of the 1335 days, in the words, "thou shalt arise to thine inheritance at the end of the days." These can only be the 1335 days whose end terminates Daniel's rest in the dust of the earth. He is to arise to his inheritance, because the inheritance promised is neither in the dust, nor in the sky, but a land from which he was expelled by the Chaldeans, and to which he never returned. He will arise from the dust of Persia, where he has been resting since "the third year of Cyrus," b.c. 540; and appearing before "Messiah the Prince," of whom he wrote, and being approved, as doubtless he will be, he will be strengthened, and henceforth be prepared to "speak with the enemy in the gate," who at present occupies the land. "The time of the dead," then, is at the epoch which terminates the 1335 years. This being so, there will, of course, be no more trampling of the Holy City by the Gentiles after their expiration. But the Saints were to be prevailed against "for a time, times, and the dividing of a time," or 1260 years; and the Holy City was to be trampled "forty and two months," which are also 1260 years. This is true; and therefore it is evident that these two differently expressed, but identical, periods both terminate synchronously with the 1335. The end of these brings us to "the end" -- the end of "the time, times, and dividing of a time;" the end of the forty and two months; the end of the 1335 years; and to the beginning of "the time of the end," which continues to the end of Micah's forty years. The beginning of "the Time of the End" is "the time of the dead." The work of this time will take time; but how much time it will consume the testimony does not reveal. The Lord Jesus Christ who is "the resurrection and the life," as well as "the truth and the way," descends to Mount Sinai while the present Sixth Vial is continuing to pour out. "Behold!" says he, "I come as a thief." He comes before "the kings of the earth and of the whole habitable" are gathered into the region termed "in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon." How long before is not revealed; but between his thief-like advent and the Armageddon-gathering is "the time of the dead" and when his work is finished with his dead ones, "He gathers the kings together" -- he operates upon a situation already created by the Frog Power; and brings on the catastrophe, which that power is not capable of accomplishing. But, how many months or years the work of setting in order his own Melchizedec Household will consume I know not. It will take time. The Lord is never in a hurry. He is always deliberate and dignified. If He pleased, He could flash everything into order; and all his enemies into destruction. But He has not acted in this way in the past; and it is clear from the word that He does not intend to act flashingly in the future. There is no question about His ability so to do. He can do what He wills; and He has revealed His will, and from that revelation, it is evident that He will be deliberate in all His movements. In the work of "the time of the dead" every individual saint who has died since Abel in all countries of the earth, has first to be awakened from his sleep of death, and made to stand bodily upon his feet. After this, they are to be gathered together from all parts to the general convention, which brings them into the presence of Christ. In this gathering, the few living saints that may remain have to be visited by his messengers, and to be caused to report themselves to the King; for one who well knew what he spoke, says, "we must all appear before the tribunal of Christ." Now to accomplish all this will consume time; but it will, doubtless, consume more time in disposing of the business of the Court. For every one gathered to that grand assize will be called upon to give an account of himself. Of this there can be no doubt, for Paul says again, "everyone of us (saints) shall give account of himself to the Deity." This relation of experiences will consume time; and one would conclude no little time. Some will doubtless be very brief, having little to say, while others will be even "speechless;" but some will have a longer account to give, as in the case of Paul and others like him. Then there will be the verdicts with all their attendant circumstances; for after the accounts given, come the personal recompenses; for they appear at the tribunal that they may "receive in body the things according to that they have done whether good or bad." For what a man sows in body he must reap in body -- "he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting." Saints who have sown to the flesh, and there have been many such, will, in this "time of the dead," be left in the body recently created from the dust; and of that body they will reap corruption that will utterly and finally destroy it. "This is the Second Death." But Saints, who have sown to the Spirit, in "denying themselves of all ungodliness and worldly lusts, and in living soberly, righteously, and godly in the world," will also in this "time of the dead" not be left in the body recently elaborated from the dust. That body will reap of the Spirit incorruptibility in being quickened in the twinkling of an eye, by which it will become Spirit-body, and so conformed to the body of Jesus Christ. This is what Daniel terms "strengthening." Thus, in "the time of the dead," there will be a judicial separation of just saints from unjust saints. A sinner becomes a saint by believing and obeying the truth; and he continues a just saint if he continues in well-doing; but, he becomes an unjust saint if he do not so continue. Now, the appearing at the tribunal of Christ by all the saints of these two classes is, that the just may be separated from the unjust; and that the unjust may be driven from the presence of judicial majesty into the darkness of the outer world, where they may ignominiously partake in the vengeance which is to "devour the adversaries." This explains the phrase in that text "the time of the dead to be judged." The judicial separation completed on this basis and the unworthy expelled from the Royal Presence, those who remain are "the called, the chosen, and faithful" -- Ch. 17:14. They are the 144,000, having the Lamb's Father's name indelibly written in their foreheads; they are "the redeemed from the earth;" the undefiled virgins; the First-fruits unto the Deity, and to the Lamb; the guiltless and faultless before the throne -- ch. 14:1-5. These are the saints, who have the honor of executing the judgment written against the kings, priests, and aristocrats of the Great City. They are all like to Jesus, who is their Head; and "equal to the angels." They constitute the Household, of which He is the High Priest, or PontiffKing, after the order of Melchizedec. To manifest this household, or Divine Family, with all the attributes of Deity, is the great and interesting preliminary work for which "the time of the dead" affords sufficient scope. -- The house being thus put in order and strengthened, the constituent members thereof are prepared to "follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth;" which is equivalent to the phrase "whithersoever the Spirit was to go, they went" (Ezek. 1:20). They go with him in all his warlike expeditions, and royal progresses and visitations. They are one and indivisible, and inseparably knit together in all the bonds of love, power, and devotion; being "members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones" (Eph. 5:30). 2. "The Reward" "The time of the dead" was, not only for the judicial separation and exclusion of the unworthy, and the strengthening, or quickening, of the approved; but for the giving of "the reward to the servants the prophets, and to the saints, even to those who fear the name of the Deity, to the small and to the great." This testimony shows, that whatever "the reward" may consist in, the righteous do not obtain it until after their resurrection and strengthening. Christ himself, in the days of his weakness and suffering, plainly taught this. "Thou shalt be recompensed," said he, "at the resurrection of the just" (Luke 14:14). And again, he said: "The Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works" (Matt. 16:27). This is the teaching which belongs to "the simplicity which is in Christ." Nothing can be more plain and easy to understand. The resurrection has not yet transpired, because "the time of the dead to be judged" is yet future; and because the Son of Man, who is the resurrection and the life, has not yet come with his angels in his Father's glory. The resurrection being future, then, none of the righteous have yet received "the reward." Enoch, Elijah, Moses, and the few who came out of their graves after the resurrection of Jesus, have been "strengthened;" but even they have not received "the reward;" for this is only to be obtained upon the earth. Now, reader, mark and inwardly digest what follows. All Greek, Latin, and Mohammedan "priests", all Protestant "clergy," and all Nonconformist, Dissenting, and Sectarian "ministers," of all the so-called "Names and Denominations of Christendom," teach the direct opposite to the doctrine of Jesus. In effect, this generation of hypocrites and serpents tells the Lord Jesus that he is either an ignoramus or a wilful deceiver of the people. It might refuse to say in so many words that he is a liar; because these priests, clergy, and ministers, all, save the Moslems, pretend to be called and sent of him, as his ambassadors to the world, to preach his doctrine; and it would be too gross plainly to declare that he is a liar and deceiver. There are, however, other ways of saying the same thing; and the most effectual with the least danger to their craft, is to teach in his name exactly the reverse of his teaching. This they do with the most unblushing effrontery. They tell their dupes, that man shall not be recompensed at the resurrection of the just; and that they have not to wait till the Son of Man comes with his angels, in declaring that men are recompensed as soon as the breath leaves the body in death. Thus, like the generation of vipers and hypocrites, who appeared to men to be righteous, with whom Jesus had personally to contend, by their tradition they make void his word. They convert it by their sorcery into a falsehood, as the old Serpent, their father, did before them in Eden. I testify against them as hypocrites in the classical sense of the word. A hypocrite is one who plays a part on a stage. A priest, clergyman, or minister, is exactly this. He plays a part on the ecclesiastical stage of the world; and a part, too, that is not his real character. He is therefore, a professional hypocrite -- a hypocrite by profession. He professes to be Christ's ambassador, and when his credentials are demanded, he has none to show. If I present myself at Washington, and claim to be an ambassador from the court of St. James, and I have no credentials to establish my claim, however sincerely I might believe in my ingorance, that I was an ambassaor of Britain, I should be attempting to play a part that was not my true character. I should therefore, be, not only a hypocrite, but an impostor, and worthy of all contempt. Only think, reader, of an ambassador falsifying the instructions of the power by whom he is sent! What confusion this would produce in the counsels of the powers! An ambassador upon whose words no reliance could be placed! And here are spiritual ambassadors, Greek, Romish, Protestant, and Sectarian, all claiming to be sent from one and the same Divine Power, all of them differing and contradicting in a multitude of important particulars, but all agreeing to suppress the teaching delivered by Eternal Wisdom, and to substitute a falsehood of their own! What do you think, reader, of such "ambassadors of Jesus Christ" so-called; of such "ministers of the gospel;" and what think you of professed believers of the truth, who would forbid that these hypocrites, impostors, and wolves in sheep's clothing, should be proved to be such, and being proved, should be so styled? An intelligent and sincere believer is not afraid to strip off the wool, and expose the naked wolf to the public gaze; his rule is to call things by their right names; and if a man be a quack, not to call him a physician, in order to make things pleasant all round. This course is necessary for the defence of the flock from these ravenous wolves. Spirituals are known to be wolves in sheep's clothing "by their fruits." Their teaching is one of their fruits. They teach contrary to Christ and his apostles, and so injure the reputation of their doctrine. This is defaming, reviling, calumniating, blaspheming, the truth. They are therefore blasphemers; and the Names and Denominations, of which they are the spirituals, are "Names of Blasphemy," of which the scarlet-colored beast is full (Apoc. 17:3). But these priestly, clerical, and ministerial teachers of blasphemy not only contradict Christ and his apostles as to the time when men shall be rewarded according to their works; but as to the place where. Eternal Wisdom has decreed that men shall be rewarded in the earth -- in the arena of their contention and suffering for the truth. "The righteous shall be recompensed in the earth; much more the wicked and the sinner." "No, no!" say the blasphemers; "no such thing! The righteous shall be recompensed at death, beyond the skiey realms of time and space; and the wicked and the sinner in the hell-flames of eternal torture, where they shall be tormented day and night by the Devil and his angels!" I do not know how it is with you, my reader, but I feel, with such contradictory propositions before me, that I am reduced to the necessary alternative of turning my back upon one or other of these parties. I find it utterly impossible to believe with Eternal Wisdom and with the so-called "ambassadors of Jesus Christ." One or the other must be trying to impose upon me; for it is logically impossible that both parties can be right. The reader can make his own election. I believe the teaching of Eternal Wisdom; and, therefore, repudiate the dogmata of blaspheming hypocrites with indignation and contempt; and, at the same time, burn incense of thanksgiving from the golden altar to His name, for His goodness in preserving me, by the enlightening influence of the engrafted word, from the evil machinations of impostors, who would have practised their sorceries upon me, and have made me twofold more a son of hell than themselves! The time when, then, and the place where, the just and the unjust are to be rewarded, is in the earth at the resurrection. This is the fiat of Eternal Wisdom, which cannot be reversed. But what is the promised reward the righteous shall enjoy? "Of the Lord," said Paul to the saints at Colosse, "ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance." In writing to the saints in Galatia, he says, "The Deity gave the Inheritance to Abraham by promise." By these testimonies we are taught that the subject-matter of the reward is an inheritance, or an estate to be possessed, when the time for the fulfilment of the promise shall arrive; and that this estate was given to Abraham, not actually donated and received before he died, but promised to him as an estate to be possessed when he should rise from the dead. "He died in faith," says Paul, "not having received the promises, but saw them afar off, and was persuaded of them and embraced them." And he tells us why he did not obtain immediate possession of the reward: it was because "the Deity has provided some better thing for us, that without us he might not be made perfect." There is no difficulty in learning what the estate is, and where it is situated, if we attend to what has been revealed in the word. Moses tells us that it was promised to Abraham that he should possess the country in which he was then living, the land of Canaan, in a certain far off age. That he should possess it for ever; and that his seed should be numberless as the stars; that he should be the father of many nations, which should be blessed in him and his Seed. Paul tells us, that these promises were made to Abraham and the Christ who was to descend from him; and that they were consequently to be "the Heirs of the World." Thus, the possession of the world was annexed to the possession of the land of Canaan; so that he who could prove that he was the divinely constituted heir of the one, proved also that he had a right to the other. The Holy Land and the World of Nations were promised to Abraham and Christ; and people of all nations were invited by the gospel preached to become heirs with them of the same promise; on condition of believing the promises, the Christship of Jesus, and the things concerning his name; and of being immersed into Christ, and thenceforth patiently continuing in well-doing. In this way they become Christ's; and, says Paul, "if ye be Christ's then are ye Abraham's Seed, and heirs according to the promise." But, the apostle also saith, the reason why Abraham did not receive the Land and World at the time the promises were made, was because the Deity had predetermined "some better thing for us." This "better thing" is all that constitutes the world more desirable in the nineteenth century after Christ, than it was over nineteen hundred years before. It had not then been sufficiently subdued, improved, and replenished. There was too much unhewn forest; too many wild races of untamed humanity; too few of the conveniences and elegances of life; and the existing civilization itself was too barbarous to constitute a gift worthy of Deity to His saints. He therefore deferred the fulfilment of His promises until He had developed a world of kingdoms and nations of a higher order of civilization -- such, in short, as now occupies the globe. This is the "better thing provided," the preparation of which has hitherto delayed the perfection of Abraham. When "the time of the dead" arrives, he, and all the prophets and postpentecostian believers, will stand upon their feet again, and be "made perfect;" and, when perfected in putting on incorruptibility, will receive the Holy Land and Modern World of kingdoms and nations for their reward. This is "the reward" to be given "in the time of the dead." In writing to the saints in Corinth, Paul says: "The world and all things are yours," and "all things are for you sakes;" and, in arguing that the World was promised to Abraham, and that they who are Christ's are Abraham's Seed, he testifies that the World annexed to the Holy Land was promised to saints. The prophets, Jesus, and the apostles, all taught this doctrine; for the Eternal Spirit spoke by them all, and therefore their teaching was a unit. Hence, by David the prophet, he taught that "those who wait upon Yahweh shall inherit the earth;" and again, "The righteous shall inherit the land, and dwell therein forever." Jesus also says: "Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. Blessed are the meek; for they shall inherit the earth." And James says: "The Deity hath chosen the poor of this world, rich in faith, as heirs of that kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him." From all these testimonies, then, it is evident that "the reward" to be given to the immortalized saints is the Holy Land, occupied by Abraham's descendants, constituting a kingdom, with dominion, absolute and uncontrolled, over all the kingdoms of the world, annexed thereto. This is the kingdom and glory to which men are invited in "the gospel of the kingdom." The events of the "Hour of Judgment" are for the purpose of wresting this world-wide dominion from those who now possess it; and of transferring it to "the Saints of the Most High, who shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for the Olahm, even for the Olahm, and beyond" the thousand years. But here come in the modern scribes, pharisees, and hypocrites, with their blasphemous and word-nullifying traditions, and make all this teaching of none effect. "Yes," say they, "the meek shall inherit the earth;" they do now inherit the earth in the farms they possess, which is as much of the earth as is good for them; but, as to the earth itself, it is not to abide for ever, but to be burned up in "the wreck of nature and the crash of worlds." And as to the Holy Land, called also "the Promised Land," they say: "True; Abraham did not possess it before he died; nor was it ever intended that he, Isaac, and Jacob, should. They were to possess it in the sense of their posterity possessing it under the Mosaic Law; for the Land of Canaan lying between the Euphrates and the Great Sea, was only typical of that 'heavenly country,' the true Canaan and happy land beyond the Jordan of Death, where souls immortal bathe in seas of endless bliss! This celestial country was the land promised to Abraham, to which he soared away upon the wings of angels, when his precious immortal soul was released from its 'mortal coil' in the article of death." Reader, one's powerlessness alone restrains one's indignation. No wonder Deity gave these hypocrites "blood to drink," and caused them to "gnaw their tongues for pain," in the great earthquake. It is because of their blasphemies vengeance has fallen upon this "Model Republic," and will, ere long, descend in an avalanche of wrath upon "the kingdoms of the world." The blasphemies of the clergy are enough to wreck any nation that upholds them. Even now, where they have the most power and influence, society is most rotten, most ignorant, and most miserable: what, then, will be the fate of all peoples, when "the time of the dead" arrives, to "execute the judgment written," and to "destroy these corrupters of the earth?" "The Reward," in relation to its several elements, is exhibited apocalyptically under a diversity of symbols. These have been considered at large in the first volume of this work. To be strengthened with incorruptible life in the time of the dead, is "to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the Paradise of the Deity" (ch. 2:7). To be an immortal king, is to receive "the crown of life" (ver. 10). To be approved, and acquitted of all guile and fault before the throne, and to be physically like Jesus Christ, is to eat of the hidden manna, to receive a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, and known only to the receiver -- ver. 17. To operate with the Lamb in the setting up of the promised kingdom, is to receive power over the nations, to rule them with a rod of iron, and to shiver their image to pieces as a potter's vessel -- ver. 26, 27. To be endued with a clean and incorruptible nature, and to be divinely honored, is to be clothed in white raiment, and to be confessed before the Father and his angels (ch. 3:5). To become Deity manifested in glorified nature, and a constituent of the New Jerusalem, is to be made a permanent pillar in the Nave or Most Holy of Deity, with the Name of Deity, and the name of the city of Deity, the new name written upon him (ver. 12). And to reign with Christ, is to sit with him in his throne (ver. 21). Such is "the reward to be given to the prophets, to the saints, to them that venerate the Name of Deity, small and great;" so that, "even the least in the kingdom of the heavens," though a star of the smallest magnitude and glory, will be greater than the greatest of all the prophets in the mortal state (Luke 7:28); "the reward" offered to all who believe the glad tidings of this glorious and powerful kingdom, and are immersed into its Almighty King, and thenceforth seek for its glory, honor, incorruptibility, and life, by a patient continuance in well-doing (Rom. 2:7); the reward to be received in "the time of the dead," and not before. 3. "The Nave of Deity Opened" "And the Nave of the Deity was opened in the heaven, and the Ark of his Covenant was seen in his Nave." This nineteenth verse is parallel with ch. 4:1, in which John says, "a door had been opened in the heaven;" and looking through the door, he saw "a throne and one sitting upon it." This throne and its glorious occupant is identical with the Ark of the Covenant. In the typical Mosaic Tabernacle, the Ark stood in the Nave, or Most Holy Place. It was Yahweh's throne in Israel, on which He was said to sit between the Cherubim. From thence proceeded all His decrees for peace or war issued through the Prince of the host, the High Priest of Israel. It was a symbol of great significance in its appointed place. Had it been placed in the Holy place, and the Golden Altar in the Most Holy, that expressive significance would have been wholly destroyed. This transposition would have represented the Lord Jesus Christ as personally and visibly resident among the saints in all the past eighteen hundred years; and that when "the time of the dead" arrived, he would take his departure, and leave them to burn incense to his name in prayer and praise, as they do now. This would have been an entire reversal of the Divine Order of Manifestation. The Nave and the Ark were beyond the Veil, which represents the flesh (Heb. 10:20). The opening of the nave is therefore equivalent to that which constitutes the nave, being no longer simply holy in the flesh, but most holy in spirit-nature, having passed from flesh to spirit. The opening of the nave is a wonderful manifestation of power. It implies the descent of him, who is the resurrection and the life; the reorganization of the ashes of the saints, and the restoration to each of them of their identity; and their subsequent transformation into spirit-bodies by the instantaneous operation of the Spirit. And when this process is complete, to give them a commanding position "in the heaven," that, as the Ark of the Covenant, they may be the depository of almighty power, and prepared for the work of ruling in righteousness all the kingdoms, or heavens, of the world, and retaining undisturbed possession of them for a thousand years. Thus, the Ark of the Covenant seen in the opened nave, is the Deity in most holy manifestation -- manifested by spirit in Jesus and his Brethren "glorified together." Collectively they form the Ark and Cherubim, the Spirit answering to the manna, the budding almond-rod, and the testimony. This is evident from the discourses of Jesus as recorded by John. The anointing Spirit, or Christ-Spirit, speaking by Jesus, declared, that he is the bread of life, or true manna; the resurrection, or budding rod; and the covenanted truth, or testimony. The container of such a power is the chest, or ark thereof; and therefore styled the Ark of the Covenant -- of the New Covenant, the Abrahamic; with a blood-sprinkled propitiatory or mercy seat, even Jesus; and all in him who worshipped in the altar. This is the throne, the Eternal Spirit's throne, to be established as such in Jerusalem, the Mother City of the Kingdom of the Ancient of Days. In the fourth chapter, the Ark of the Covenant is distributed. The mercy seat and ark of which it is the coverlid, are exhibited there as the throne encircled with the rainbow of covenant-testimony; and the cherubim full of eyes, are taken down and placed about the throne, surrounded with a circle of representative royal presbyters. This distribution, when synthesized, or put together, constitutes the apocalyptic Ark. The time of the fourth chapter symbols is synchronous with "the time of the dead," when the judgment of the House of Deity shall have been completed; and the saints shall be ready, by their immortalization, to execute the judgment written against the world without. "And there were lightnings and voices and thunders, and an earthquake, and great hail." These are the same that burst forth out of the throne, as represented in ch. 4:5; and are the consummation of the wrath of the Eternal Omnipotence upon the objects of apocalyptic vengeance. These lightnings, voices, thunderings, earthquake, and great hail, of the fourth and eleventh chapters, are symbolical of the judgments of the Seventh Vial; which is the consummation of the judgments of the Seventh Trumpet, and of the Seventh Seal. "No one can enter into the nave until the seven plagues of the seven angels be finished" -- ch. 15:8. This entering into the nave, is in the sense of entering into the kingdom, consisting of "the kingdoms of the world;" for it will require all the judgments of the Seventh Vial to complete the transfer of those kingdoms from the grasp of the wicked, or, "the Devil and his Angels," who now hold them, to the Saints who are to possess them for a thousand years. In all the period of the Seventh Vial "the Nave is filled with smoke from the glory of the Deity." The nave then exists, as constituted of glorified Christadelphians, or Brethren of Christ; but they smoke with burning and consuming indignation against the governments of the world and their armies; and until that smoke has passed away in victory, by which their wrath is assuaged, the Nave, in the sense of the most holy and blessed constitution of the thousand years can be entered upon by none. The thunderings are the Seven Thunders of the last vial. They burst forth against the powers of the aerial in which they roll. They are accompanied with an earthquake, whose shocks surpass every thing of the kind experienced by men since they began to dwell upon the earth. It is described as "a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake and so great" (ch. 16:18). As the result of it, the cities or states, of the nations, are overturned: and great dismay pervades all classes. Besides this, a great hail falls upon the people, whose wickedness is great. It falls upon them "out of the heaven." It descends upon them from the Nave, "every hailstone about the weight of a talent." A talent is figurative of an individual. When he descends as a hailstone, he falls from the heaven of power upon the enemy to be judged. A multitude of such descending upon their enemies, becomes to them as a storm of hail. They constitute a mighty and strong power, "which, as a tempest of hail, and a destroying storm, as a flood of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast down to the earth with the hand" (Isa. 28:2). With such a hail will men be plagued; but instead of repenting of their iniquity, transgression, and sin, they will "blaspheme the Deity; for the plague of the hail will be exceeding great" (ch. 16:21). We have now arrived at the conclusion of the eleventh chapter of that admirable symbolic representation of the things concerning the kingdom of men, in its antagonism to the kingdom of Deity, the Name of Jesus Christ, and to them who are "the called according to His purpose." There still remain eleven chapters to be expounded. These will constitute the subject-matter of the Third Volume of Eureka. This second volume has brought us down to the appearing of the Ancient of Days in the midst of the manifested Sons of Deity, in judicial and beligerent activity against the Four Mediterranean Dominions, symbolized by the Beasts, which Daniel saw coming up out of its tempestuous waters (Dan. 7:2, 3). This is the wonderful denouement of the tragic drama of the Apocalypse. There is another grand development a thousand years afterwards. This is vastly important and intensely interesting to all the sons of men; for it reveals nothing short of the cessation of every curse by which humanity has been continuously afflicted since its primeval transgression of the divine law (Apoc. 22:3). But, of these two developments, the former is the most interesting at this crisis to the Brethren of Jesus Christ; for to them, the coming of the Ancient of Days is their speedy deliverance from "all the ills that flesh is heir to." In relation to them, Mortality and Death will be swallowed up of life and victory (1 Cor. 15:54; 2 Cor. 4:4); and the curses, which now cleave to flesh and blood with leprous inveteracy, shall afflict them no more. They shall be "like Jesus" and "equal to the angels" (1 John 3:2; Luke 20:36). This is a consummation, not only to be devoutly wished and prayed for, but to be earnestly sought for, and labored for, "by a patient continuance in well-doing" -- which is the only effectual seeking that will be wreathed with that which fadeth not away. The end of this chapter conducts the faithful to this glorious consummation, in which, being immortalized, "judgment will be given to them" (Dan. 7:22, 26). The "lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and earthquake, and great hail," burst forth from them in occupancy of the throne conjointly with the Ancient of Days. These are their judicial outpourings of wrath upon the "powers that be." The whole of the Seventh Vial, as well as the closing scenes of the Sixth, are assigned to them. We are now contemporary with the development of the preadventual Frog-Sign in the third and last stage of its operation. Before this is completely finished, "the Ancient of Days comes as a thief;" so that Apoc. 16:15 and 11:17-19, are identical crises. This is the crisis now upon the world. The first throes of the parturient mountain which are to evolve The Stone (Dan. 2:34, 35, 44, 45) are being felt in all the Habitable of the two hemispheres. "No man is master of the situation." This has been well said by an Austrian Journal. The Deity alone holds the key of the position. His servants know what that is; for to them He has made known His secret (Psa. 25:14; Prov. 3:32; Amos 3:7); and by its signs they are forewarned. That key is upon his shoulder, who opens and none shuts; and shuts and none opens even upon his, who shall be for a glorious throne to the House of David (Isa. 22:20-25; Apoc. 3:7). He will "open a door in the heaven," and lead "his sanctified ones" into the royal palace of Babylon the Great; where all the might of the power, and the honor of the majesty of the kingdom of men, is temporally and provisionally enthroned. While the governments of the nations are unconsciously contributing to the formation of a situation to be signalized by their irretrievable and final overthrow, the Master of that situation proclaims to his Brethren, "Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame." May we, my reader, be of that happy number, who shall be found of him watching, and duly and fitly clothed. Volume 4 PREFACE The Apocalypse has now been before the world 1770 years. Since its first appearance among the Seven Ecclesias of Asia Minor there have been various short expository notices of certain parts of the prophecy by some of the earlier overseers of the Christian community, who flourished from about the middle of the second to the middle of the third centuries: such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, and the pseudo-Sybilline Oracles. The earliest essay at a systematic exposition of the wonderful and ingenious prophecy now extant, is one by Victorinus, overseer of an ecclesia at Pettau in Pannonia; who was put to death in the period of the Fifth Seal, or "ten days' tribulation" of the Diocletian persecution, from a.d. 303 to a.d. 313. The next hundred and sixty years, extending from the accession of Constantine to the wounding of the Sixth Head of the Beast, and the manifestation of the Seventh Head upon the Seven Hills, several scribes belonging to the Laodicean Apostacy, enthroned by Constantine as the religion of the Roman State, bestowed upon their contemporaries some bewildering speculations, by which the prophecy was intensely darkened. These were the ecclesiastical historian Eusebius; the tutor of Crispus, murdered by his father Constantine, the chief bishop of the Apostacy named Lactantius; Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril, Euphrem Syrus, Chrysostom, Jerome, Augustine, and Tychonius, who was said to be a Donatist, reclaimed from Donatism by Augustine. After these came certain Latin expositors, named Primasius, Bede, Ansbertus, Haytoo, Andreas, Arethas, and Berengaud. These flourished from the wounding of the Sixth Head, and in the period of the rising of the Ten Horns, to a.d. 1,100. They were no more luminous in their expositions than their predecessors. They failed to discern the signs of their own times; and either endorsed the foolishness, or made more manifest the impenetrable obscurity, of them that preceded them. Anselm, Joachim Abbas, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, the "angelic doctor," Pierre d'Olive, and Walter Brute, followed after them; and set to their hands in the work of making darkness visible. They had no misgivings as to the divine origin of the Apocalypse. In this Luther, "The Great Father of the Reformation," who came after them in the 16th century, was not in the same assurance. He had doubts of the genuineness of the Apocalypse as an apostolic or inspired book; though he came at length when he perceived how it might be wielded against his late master the Pope and papacy, to hold his doubts in abeyance, and presumptuously to venture upon its exposition. But this "great father" made out no better than the Laodiceans who preceded him. The "Mighty Angel," says he, "with a rainbow and a little bitter book, is Popery: the open book being that of papal laws, given to John to eat!" The Seventh Head he supposed to be Spain: while the three frog-like spirits depicted papal sophists, like Faber, Eck, and Emser, stirring up opposition to what he called gospel. His conceptions of the Millennium were as cloudy as those of Jerome and Augustine, who could see nothing in it but the triumph over Satan in the hearts of true believers! In short, to men in the fog even the truth itself is foggy but where the light within is not darkness, all things are bright and resplendent. Jerome, Augustine, and Luther did not understand "the truth as it is in Jesus," nor the voices of the Old Testament; it was impossible, therefore, that they could discern the import of the Apocalypse, which is "the Mystery of the Deity as He hath announced the glad tidings to His servants, the prophets" (Apoc. 10:7). Luther was as a useful anti-papal element of "the Earth that helped the Woman" in her tormenting witnessing against "the god of the earth;" but, as a guide to the blind, and a teacher of babes, in the way of salvation; or an expositor of apocalyptic mysteries, his incompetency was only second to the Pope himself. In the 16th century also appeared as apocalyptic expositors, Bullinger, Bale, Marlorat, Foxe, Brightman, Pareus, Ribera, and Alcasar. Bullinger interpreted the ascent of the witnesses of the ascent of their departed spirits entering Paradise! He dated the Millennium from Christ's ascension; or from a.d. 60, when Paul speaks of the gospel "having been preached to every creature under heaven;" or from a.d. 73, the date of the destruction of Jerusalem. In either case, of course, it has long since passed away. Bale commenced it at Christ's ascension. From these two may be learned all. It was only a question between them of more or less foolishness. Ribera and Alcasar were Spanish Jesuits who sought to expound the Apocalypse so as to deliver the Papacy from any identification with its symbols. Alcasar's Commentary was the result of over forty years' study; but a worshipper of the beast might study it twice forty years, and at the end thereof his speculations would not be worth the paper consumed. The true meaning of the Apocalypse is accessible only to the Brethren of Christ, and the fellow servants of the apostle, who keep the sayings of the book. All others will prove but vain and fanciful theorists with whom the secrets of the Deity are never found. Next after the aera of the Lutheran rebellion against papal authority came Mede, Jurieu, Cressener, Bossuet, Vitringa, Daubuz, Sir Isaac Newton, Whiston, and Bishop Newton. Mede first published his Clavis Apocalyptica in 1627, and his Commentary in 1632. He was regarded by his contemporaries in England as a man almost inspired for the exposition of apocalyptic mysteries. And assuredly in comparison of all his predecessors who had written upon the subject, he was a great light shining into thick and incomprehensible darkness. In several important points he much advanced the science. He interpreted the prophetic periods on the year-day principle; made the resurrection and ascension of the witnesses an ascent to political eminence; made the Sixth Head under which John lived, the Imperial Caesars; adopted Lateinos as the Beast's name and number, explained the sun of the fourth vial of the German Dynasty, as the chief luminary in the Papal Imperial system; indicated Rome as the throne of the beast upon which the fifth vial would be poured; interpreted the drying up of the river Euphrates of the exhaustion of the Ottoman power; and coincided with Justin, Irenaeus, and others of the earliest date, in the first resurrection, being the literal resurrection of the saints to be developed on Christ's coming to the Antichrist's destruction; after which the Millennium will be introduced. This is quite refreshing after all the absurdity to be waded through in the writings of fifteen hundred years. Jurieu, who wrote in 1685, indicated the death of the Witnesses as occurring in that year; and that they would lie dead and unburied in the street of the great Papal city, or empire, which he judged to be France, where, of course, their resurrection and ascension would ensue. Cressener seems to have been the first who, in my judgment, rightly, in 1690, concluded that the Seventh Head was the Ostrogothic, which continued but a short time: the Eighth being the revived secular imperial, confederated with a Roman ecclesiastical head, somewhat as under the old emperors; that is, the secular Western Emperors combined with the Popes. The Image of the Beast he makes to be the Roman Church, and the name Lateinos. Vitringa's exposition was no improvement upon Mede, Jurieu, and Dr. Cressener. He was a spiritual Millennialist, whose future age was to be characterized by a thorough evangelization of the world, by what he regarded as "the Church," which would then answer to the New Jerusalem! Alas, for the world if its evangelization depend upon the ecclesiastics of Vitringa's church! He was a very learned man, and well versed in the wisdom current a hundred and fifty years ago; but in apocalyptic intelligence, his wisdom was the foolishness of a babe. Daubuz, who published in a.d. 1720, was about as luminous as Vitringa which is not saying much for the result of his apocalyptic labors. Sir Isaac Newton published his brief commentary in a.d. 1733, appended to his treatise on Daniel. Many of his opinions were very crude. He generally agreed with Mede, but not always. The five-month period of tormenting in Apoc. 9:5, 10, he expounds as I have done, as signifying two periods of 150 years each, or 300 years for the times of the Saracens. The "hour day month and year" he reckons to signify 391 years; namely, from Alp Arslan's first victories on the Euphrates, a.d. 1063, to the fall of Constantinople, a.d. 1453. Generally speaking, his commentary was not equal to his reputation. Whiston Sir Isaac Newton's successor in the Mathematical ProfessorShip at Cambridge, combated the opinions of others without shedding upon the subject any particular light of his own, save that the seven vials ought to be deemed contained in, and the evolution of, the Seventh Trumpet. When the great French Revolution caused the astonished world to shake to its foundations, a shock was given to the minds of men whose vibrations have not yet subsided. The murdered witnesses, slain by the sanguinary Bourbons, had started into life, and ascended into political eminence, as Mede had taught his readers to expect. This, and the coincidence also, that this ascension was exactly 1260 years from the epoch of the delivery of the saints into the hand of the episcopal element of the Little Horn by Justinian, in a.d. 533; all concurred in arousing some to a renewed and earnest study of the prophetic word. Prominent among these was Mr. Bicheno, who published his "Signs of the Times" in 1793. His writings were interesting, though abounding with many speculations proved fallacious by the lapse of time. One thing, however, he did which should not be forgotten. He showed that the three days and a half during which the two witnessing prophets were to lie unburied in the platea of the great city, should be interpreted as three lunar days and a half of years; and that Jurieu, therefore, was right in his conjecture that their death ensued, a.d. 1685. Since Mr. Bicheno's time several writers on prophecy have risen up. Of these may be mentioned Irving, Faber, Keith, Cuninghame, Frere, Bickersteth, Elliott, and others. But I am not aware that they have added anything that would at all increase the intelligibility of the Apocalypse. Of this I am well assured, that from the days of Justin Martyr in the beginning of the second century, to the publication of Mr. Elliott's elaborate commentary, there has been produced by no writer, a systematic and thorough exposition of the Apocalypse that will stand the test of scripture, history, and reason enlightened by the truth. If there ever were such a work, it is certainly not extant. A perusal of a digest of their apocalyptic speculations, has convinced me that none of them, from Justin Martyr to Elliott, understood the prophecy. With no other guides to the blind than these, it is not to be wondered at that men should give the Apocalypse the go-by, and, with a reviewer in a London weekly, conclude "that nothing is more ridiculous than for any one to arrogate to himself the power of interpreting the prophecies contained in Daniel and the Revelation; being convinced that it would require as divine and miraculous an inspiration to interpret and apply those prophecies as was necessary to utter them." This is the conviction of the general public, which, like the public of the third century that had no ear for what the Spirit said to the ecclesias, pronounced it "without sense and without reason;" and denied that it was even a revelation. If so, then the man that composed it was the most extraordinary genius of the ancient or modern worlds. But it is not necessary to defend the Apocalypse at this crisis. The Constitution of Europe for the past thousand years which it so accurately exhibits, is evidential of its inspiration. It was revealed to be understood by the uninspired: and that it can be understood by them is proved to a demonstration by the three volumes of Eureka, which are now, through the munificence of a few Christadelphians, who desire to understand this neglected portion of "the Word," and have confidence in the author's ability to expound it, in the hands of their fellow-servants and brethren. I claim no "divine and miraculous inspiration;" yet, I maintain, that whatever failures others may learnedly have accomplished, the exposition I have given in these three volumes, however "ridiculous" and "arrogant" it may be considered to affirm it, cannot be set aside by a fair and candid appeal to the testimony of Jesus, political geography, and the truth of history. Since the publication of the second volume, and even since the writing of the third was finished, events have been progressing steadily and stealthily to the appointed end. The most striking characteristic of the times is the neglect, or indifference to, tending to the repudiation of, the Public Women of Europe, apocalyptically styled "the Mother of Harlots, and all the Abominations of the Earth." The "women" with whom the Lamb's Virgins are undefiled: Apoc. 14:4. Behold the changed policy of the Two-Horned Beast of the Earth since the overwhelming defeat of its hosts at Sadowa. This power, that formerly gave life to the Image, enabled it to speak, and caused that as many as would not worship it should be killed, has now taken almost all the life out of it, so that it can no longer speak in terror to the worshippers of the beast in all the Austrian Empire. Territorial continuity with "St. Peter's Patrimony" being interrupted, through the intervention of the revolutionary kingdom of Italy, the Concordat, the political bond between "His Holiness" and "His Apostolic Majesty," is dissevered, and the worshippers of the beast are freed from the audacious inspection, and profane decrees, of the "Eyes like the eyes of a man and the Mouth speaking great things and blasphemies." Inspired by "the Spirit of the Age," which is "the Spirit of Life from the Deity" that entered into the slain prophets, who ascended to power in 1789, the Reichsrath, or Imperial Legislature of Austria, practically abolished one of the seven sacraments of the Church of Rome in authorizing "civil marriage." Besides this, it proclaimed "liberty of worship" to all sects: and has taken the education of the people out of the hands of an accursed priesthood, and given it to schoolmasters of their own choice. By the Concordat the Roman Pontiff King, was above the emperor in all the spiritual affairs of the Austrian Empire; throughout which, all such things were "given into his hand" as absolutely as when Justinian made him "Head over all the Churches" of his estate. But behold how great a reverse of fortune hath befallen the "Universal Bishop" in this False Prophet section of his dominion. What doth all this mean. What else than that the 1335 and 1260 years of his ascendancy from the times of Justinian and Phocas, are come to an end; and that he is doomed no longer to "practise and prosper" to the ruin of saints, and the quenching of the Spirit of the Age; which is a spirit of liberalism, and of democratic hostility to the old order of things in Church and State -- a spirit that may be impeded, but cannot be extinguished till the manifestation of the Ancient of Days. Then, if we turn our attention to Spain, the "Most Catholic," from which the virtuous and immaculate Isabella, the last of the infatuated and atrocious Bourbons, the ensanguined murderers of the saints, hath so recently been expelled, what see we there? Do we not behold the Spirit that rose and ascended to power in 1789, notwithstanding all its misfortunes, and frequent discomfitures triumphant in 1868? The virtuous, pure, and most catholic daughter of His Papal Holiness, his last and most devoted friend among the Ten Horns, driven into exile at the end of the 1335 and 1260? A letter from Spain to La Liberte, dated Sept. 22, says: "Isabella has lost her throne. She seized it in 1839, supported by the Spanish Liberal party, which, in 1837, made her proclaim the Constitution, which suppressed les seigneuries, les droits des aines, and tithes. It was this party which caused her to sell the mortmain property, suppress privileges, shut up the convents, sending away with a pension 30,000 monks useless to the country, and hurtful to public prosperity. But as soon as the Queen was married to Prince Francis of Bourbon, in 1846, reaction gained the upper hand everywhere. All the conquests made by the Liberal party were lost again. In 1863, Conservatives, Progressists, and moderate Liberals, wished to resist the reaction. Marshall O'Donnell, the head of this party, recognized Italy, and promulgated several liberal was in 1866. The Revolution was vanquished. O'Donnell could not profit by his success, for, to the great amazement of everybody, he was suddenly replaced by Narvaez two days after his victory Since then all the constitutional system has disappeared; and Spain is in the same condition as if Don Carlos and his ideas had triumphed in 1840. "The Queen has become the humble servant of the Pope. All Spain nearly burst with laughter, when, a year ago, she read the papal letter announcing to the whole world that Pius IX sent the 'golden rose' to Isabella, in recompense for her virtues and the purity of her life! "The struggle has now begun between the Liberal and the reactionary party. Everything would incline one to believe that the latter will be beaten; for, in fact, the Liberal party, composed of all shades opposed to absolutism, form a very compact whole". Here is the last pillar of the papal throne levelled with the dust. While yet upon the throne, the same correspondent wrote, "the clergy is above the Queen." But where will they be now that the spirit of '89 has driven into exile the humble servant and most catholic daughter of their Universal Bishop, the lambskin-invested wolf of the Seven Hills? Will Louis Napoleon now be able to send 40,000 troops through Isabella to garrison Rome and protect the Pope against Italy, while he combats Prussia for the Rhenish frontier of France? May we not rather expect that the Spanish section of "the Revolution" will ally itself with the Italian section, and revive the work with renewed energy of "hating the Harlot and making her desolate and naked, and eating her flesh, and burning her with fire?" Further developments will soon illustrate this point in the Roman Question; though it is not to be expected that Rome will become the capital of any other dominion than is enthroned there. No Ninth Head can constitutionally exist upon the Seven Hills. And what see we in England? We behold there the Spirit of '89 in its British manifestation, carrying out the principle of hatred and desolation, of stripping and eating, in regard to the Anglo-Hibernian Harlot, a daughter of Rome, "Mother and Mistress of All Churches," and sister to those other "Harlots" of England and Scotland, "as by law established". This, hating, desolating, stripping, eating, and burning of ecclesiastical establishments has been a striking characteristic of the past seventy-five years. The abolition of the Gallican harlot is "only a question of time." The world will progress until the ignorance, superstition, hypocrisy, and spiritual wickedness in the high and low places of old, worn out, Antichristendom, shall come to be abolished by Christ and his Resurrected Brethren, whose apocalypse is soon to be revealed. With all these signs of the times before the faithful, well may they rejoice and lift up the head; for assuredly "the redemption draweth nigh." In conclusion, as the Corsican remarked concerning the leadership of his victorious hosts, "it is the hand of God that leads my armies;" so when I consider the difficulties surmounted in the development of this Exposition, I may truly affirm, that the power of the Deity has performed the work. The labor has been diffused over twelve years; but, if I had not well understood "the Gospel of the Kingdom;" which "is the Power of God," I might have contained in my earthen vessel all the lore of ancient and modern times, and consumed twelve years thrice told in the study of its mysteries, yet should I have signally failed; and have had to confess with Dionysius, "the great bishop of Alexandria," as Eusebius styles him, that the words of the Apocalypse were "too lofty to be comprehended by me." I have been careful to treat nothing as non-essential or unimportant because of apparent difficulties. The work is now finished by "the power" aforesaid through my instrumentality -- a work concerning which it may be said in the words of an old Roman exile, Eregi monimmentum perennius re: this generation may not appreciate it, but one in the future will. The following (see pg. 12) is my scheme of the prophecy to be studied in connexion with the Chron. Tab. in Vol. 1, p. 428, and the Tab. Analysis, Vol. 2 p. 110. Author PUBLISHERS' NOTE Originally, the Third Volume of Eureka was a large book of over 700 pp. Subsequent editions divided it into two volumes called Volumes IIIA and IIIB. They comprised books of over 300 pp. each. However, with the additional matter that we have included in the form of illustrations and footnotes, a single Volume would make too unwieldy a book. As it is, the present volume, answering to Volume IIIA of previous editions exceeds 400 pp. And we anticipate the final Volume will exceed the present one in the additional information we hope to include; for in the form of footnotes, we shall try to bring up to date the fulfilment of Bible prophecy in accordance with the Author's anticipations of over 100 years ago. Logos Publications January, 1985. THE AUTHOR'S APOCALYPTIC SCHEME, a.d. 1869. MEDE'S APOCALYPTIC SCHEME, a.d. 1632. Rome in the days constantine